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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01919512.2020.1842998

SARS-CoV-2 Inactivation by Ozonated Water: A Preliminary Alternative for Environmental Disinfection

04 Mar 2021-Ozone-science & Engineering (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 43, Iss: 2, pp 108-111
Abstract: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 caused a global pandemic. Due to the lack of treatment and vaccines, safety strategies must be found to stop the virus dissemination. The objective of this study was ...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JWPE.2021.102193
Abstract: The novel SARS-CoV-2 is expanding internationally. While the current focus is on limiting its transmission from direct contact with infected patients and surfaces during the pandemic, the secondary transmission potential via sewage should not be underestimated, especially in low-income and developing countries with weak wastewater treatment technologies. Recent studies have indicated SARS-CoV-2 positivity also be detected in the feces of patients. Therefore, the risk of transmission and infection can be increased into sewage by the fecal-oral way, mainly in some parts of the globe with a high amount of open defecation. This review collected scattered data and recent studies about the direct and indirect effects of coronavirus in the water cycle. The direct impacts of COVID-19 on wastewater are related to the presence of the coronavirus and suitable viral removal methods in different phases of treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The indirect effects of COVID-19 on wastewater are related to the overuse of cleaning and disinfecting products to protect against viral infection and the overuse of certain drugs to protect against virus or novel mental problems and panic to COVID-19 and consequently their presence in wastewater. This unexpected situation leads to changes in the quality of wastewater and brings adverse and harmful effects for the human, aquatic organisms, and the environment. Therefore, applying effective wastewater treatment technologies with low toxic by-products in wastewater treatment plants will be helpful to prevent the increasing occurrence of these extra contaminants in the environment.

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Topics: Wastewater (57%), Sewage (53%), Sewage treatment (52%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WATCYC.2021.05.001
Jiayang Kong1, Yun Lu1, Yunru Ren1, Zhuo Chen1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic draws much attention to virus inactivation since the SARS-CoV-2 was detected in miscellaneous environments and the wastewater can be a potential transmitting pathway. UV irradiation, ozonation and chlorination are widely used disinfection processes in water treatment. In this review, the mechanisms and applications of three disinfection processes are introduced, and their inactivation effects on virus as well as other microorganisms are compared and discussed. The resistance of viruses to UV irradiation is generally stronger than that of bacteria. 4-log inactivation of bacteria can be easily obtained within a UV dose of 10 ​mJ/cm2. However, the doses to reach the same virus removal rate vary greatly from 10 to 140 ​mJ/cm2. The coronaviruses have even stronger UV resistance. Comparatively, ozonation and chlorination are effective methods to inactivate viruses, and the CT values of 4-log removal for most viruses concerned are lower than 1 ​mg·min/L and 10 ​mg·min/L, respectively. Protozoa, fungal spores and bacterial spores are more resistant to disinfection. Temperature, pH, organic matters, turbidity and other parameters all have influences on the disinfection. With a 10 ​°C decrease in temperature, the CT value required for certain removal rates doubles. Generally low pH promotes disinfection and high pH is against it. In drinking water and wastewater treatment process, the resistance properties of microorganisms and other influence parameters should be taken into consideration when choosing disinfection technologies.

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Topics: Water treatment (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHIN.2021.07.014
Abstract: Summary Background The novel SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the most recent pandemic faced by humanity, has become a global crisis causing millions of deaths. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of infectious particles suspended in the air, direct deposition on mucous membranes and indirect contact via contaminated surfaces. Therefore, disinfection methods that can halt such transmission are important in this pandemic and in future viral infections. Aim Highlight the efficacy of several disinfection methods against SARS-CoV-2, based on up-to-date evidence found in literature. Methods A research was conducted through two databases to assess the disinfection methods used against SARS-CoV-2. From a total of 1229 studies found, 60 were included. Quality assessment was evaluated by the OHAT risk of bias tool. Findings Disinfection methods on environmental surfaces were approached by 28 studies; 16 articles addressed disinfection methods used on biological surfaces; 4 articles presented disinfection methods for airborne coronavirus and 16 studies demonstrated methods used to recondition PPEs. Conclusions Several household and hospital disinfection agents and UV-C irradiation were effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces. Formulations containing povidone-iodine can provide virucidal action on the skin and mucous membranes. In the case of hand hygiene, typical soap bars and alcohols can inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Air filtration systems incorporated with materials that possess catalytic properties, UV-C devices and heating systems can effectively reduce airborne viral particles. The decontamination of PPEs can be conducted safely by heat and ozone treatment.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12560-021-09485-X
Abstract: We evaluated the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of ozonated glycerol (OG). When a viral solution with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 20 s, OG with ozone concentrations of over 1000 ppm inactivated ≥ 94.38% of the virus. Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to the inactivation of ≥ 99.82% of the virus (the viral titer was below the detection limit). Extension to 24 h resulted in concentrations over 200 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.87% of the virus (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Next, viral solutions with 1, 20, and 40% FBS were mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 5 min. Whereas the virucidal activity of 500 ppm OG was very limited in the presence of 1% FBS (79.47% inactivation), it increased in the presence of 20 and 40% FBS (95.13 and 97.95% inactivation, respectively; the viral titers were not below the detection limit). Meanwhile, over 1000 ppm OG inactivated ≥ 99.44% of the virus regardless of the FBS concentration (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to 500 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.91 and ≥ 99.95% of the virus with 20 and 40% FBS, respectively (the viral titers were below the detection limit). These results suggested that OG might be useful as a virucidal agent against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Titer (51%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.20.439992
20 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The global emergence of Covid-19 has caused huge human casualties. Clinical manifestations of the disease vary from asymptomatic to lethal, and the symptomatic form can be associated with cytokine storm and non-homeostatic inflammatory response. In face of the urgent demand for effective drugs to treat Covid-19, we have searched for candidate compounds using a drug repurposing approach based on in silico analysis followed by biological validation. Here we identified celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F - a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine - as one of the best compounds out of 39 repurposed drug candidates. Celastrol reverted gene expression signature from SARS-CoV-2-infected cells; bound with high-affinity energy to viral molecular targets such as main protease (Mpro) and receptor-biding domain (RBD); inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkey (Vero and Vero-ACE2) and human (Caco-2 and Calu-3) cell lines; and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in SARS-CoV-2-infected human cell lines. Interestingly, celastrol acted in a concentration-dependent manner, with undetectable signs of cytotoxicity. Therefore, celastrol is a promising lead drug candidate to treat Covid-19 due to its ability to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and IL-6 production in infected cells, two critical events in the pathophysiology of this disease.

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Topics: Celastrol (70%), Drug repositioning (51%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2004973
Abstract: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 In this research letter, investigators report on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 under experimental conditions. The viability of the two virus...

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5,763 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHIN.2020.01.022
Abstract: Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread.

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2,123 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1725399
Liangjun Chen1, Weiyong Liu2, Qi Zhang1, Ke Xu1  +13 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: From December 2019, an outbreak of unusual pneumonia was reported in Wuhan with many cases linked to Huanan Seafood Market that sells seafood as well as live exotic animals. We investigated two pat...

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Topics: Outbreak (50%)

354 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3201/EID2606.200516
Jennifer L Harcourt1, Jennifer L Harcourt2, Azaibi Tamin1, Xiaoyan Lu1  +35 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.

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Topics: Coronavirus (65%), Virus (55%), Pneumonia (52%) ... read more

334 Citations


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