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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANI11030667

SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Household Domestic Ferrets ( Mustela putorius furo ).

02 Mar 2021-Animal (MDPI AG)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 667
Abstract: Animal infections with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in different countries and several animal species have been proven to be susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 both naturally and by experimental infection. Moreover, infections under natural conditions in more than 20 mink farms have been reported where humans could have been the source of infection for minks. However, little information is available about the susceptibility of pet animals under natural conditions and currently there is no SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological assessment occurrence in household ferrets. In this study, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was evaluated in serum samples obtained from 127 household ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) in the Province of Valencia (Spain). Two ferrets tested positive to SARS-CoV-2 (1.57%) by in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen. Furthermore, anti-RBD SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted at detectable levels in a seropositive SARS-CoV-2 domestic ferret beyond 129 days since the first time antibodies were detected. This study reports for the first time the evidence of household pet ferrets exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain to date.

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Topics: Mink (54%), Seroprevalence (51%), Mustela putorius (51%) ... show more
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15 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01652176.2021.1921311
Khan Sharun1, Kuldeep Dhama1, A.M. Pawde1, Christian Gortázar2  +8 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously 2019-nCoV) is suspected of having originated in 2019 in China from a coronavirus infected bat of the genus Rhinolophus. Following the initial emergence, possibly facilitated by a mammalian bridge host, SARS-CoV-2 is currently transmitted across the globe via efficient human-to-human transmission. Results obtained from experimental studies indicate that animal species such as cats, ferrets, raccoon dogs, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, white-tailed deer, rabbits, Egyptian fruit bats, and Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that cat-to-cat and ferret-to-ferret transmission can take place via contact and air. However, natural infections of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported only in pet dogs and cats, tigers, lions, snow leopards, pumas, and gorillas at zoos, and farmed mink and ferrets. Even though human-to-animal spillover has been reported at several instances, SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals-to-humans has only been reported from mink-to-humans in mink farms. Following the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the mink population, a new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant emerged that was identified in both humans and mink. The increasing reports of SARS-CoV-2 in carnivores indicate the higher susceptibility of animal species belonging to this order. The sporadic reports of SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wild animal species require further investigation to determine if SARS-CoV-2 or related Betacoronaviruses can get established in kept, feral or wild animal populations, which may eventually act as viral reservoirs. This review analyzes the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in domestic and wild animal species and their possible implications on public health.

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Topics: Mink (61%), Population (53%)

22 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANI11051422
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19, is considered a pathogen of animal origin that is mainly transmitted from human to human. Several animal species can be naturally or experimentally infected by SARS-CoV-2, with compelling evidence that mink is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human-to-mink infection cases have been reported and there are also suggestions that mink-to-human infection occurs. Mink infections have been reported to date only on fur farms, except for one infected free- ranging wild mink near a Utah (USA) fur farm, which suggests a transmission pathway from farms to wild mink. We now report the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 2 of 13 feral dark brown American mink (Neovison vison) trapped in the Valencian Community (Eastern Spain), during an invasive species trapping campaign. They were trapped in riverbeds in sparsely inhabited rural areas known to harbor self-sustained feral mink populations. The closest fur farm is about 20 km away. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by two-step RT-PCR in these animals' mesenteric lymph nodes and was confirmed by sequencing a 397-nucleotide amplified region of the S gene, yielding identical sequences in both animals. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was run on this sequence, which was found to correspond to the consensus SARS-CoV-2 sequence from Wuhan. Our findings appear to represent the first example of SARS-CoV-2 acquired in the wild by feral mink in self-sustained populations.

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Topics: American mink (75%), Mink (72%), Neovison (69%)

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2025601118
Abstract: Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are mustelids of special relevance to laboratory studies of respiratory viruses and have been shown to be susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and onward transmission. Here, we report the results of a natural experiment where 29 ferrets in one home had prolonged, direct contact and constant environmental exposure to two humans with symptomatic disease, one of whom was confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2. We observed no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from humans to ferrets based on viral and antibody assays. To better understand this discrepancy in experimental and natural infection in ferrets, we compared SARS-CoV-2 sequences from natural and experimental mustelid infections and identified two surface glycoprotein Spike (S) mutations associated with mustelids. While we found evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme II provides a weak host barrier, one mutation only seen in ferrets is located in the novel S1/S2 cleavage site and is computationally predicted to decrease furin cleavage efficiency. These data support the idea that host factors interacting with the novel S1/S2 cleavage site may be a barrier in ferret SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and that domestic ferrets are at low risk of natural infection from currently circulating SARS-CoV-2. We propose two mechanistically grounded hypotheses for mustelid host adaptation of SARS-CoV-2, with possible effects that require additional investigation.

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Topics: Environmental exposure (54%)

12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13061149
16 Jun 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Pets play a crucial role in the development of human feelings, social life, and care. However, in the era of the prevailing global pandemic of COVID-19 disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many questions addressing the routes of the virus spread and transmission to humans are dramatically emerging. Although cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found in pets including dogs, cats, and ferrets, to date there is no strong evidence for pet-to-human transmission or sustained pet-to-pet transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, an increasing number of studies reporting detection of SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks raises suspicion of potential viral transmission from these animals to humans. Furthermore, due to the high susceptibility of cats, ferrets, minks and hamsters to COVID-19 infection under natural and/or experimental conditions, these animals have been extensively explored as animal models to study the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and transmission. In this review, we present the latest reports focusing on SARS-CoV-2 detection, isolation, and characterization in pets. Moreover, based on the current literature, we document studies aiming to broaden the knowledge about pathogenicity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the development of viral therapeutics, drugs and vaccines. Lastly, considering the high rate of SARS-CoV-2 evolution and replication, we also suggest routes of protection against the virus.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VIRUSRES.2021.198473
09 Jun 2021-Virus Research
Abstract: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the first known pandemic caused by a coronavirus. Its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appears to be capable of infecting different mammalian species. Recent detections of this virus in pet, zoo, wild, and farm animals have compelled inquiry regarding the zoonotic (animal-to-human) and reverse zoonotic (human-to-animal) transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 with the potential of COVID-19 pandemic evolving into a panzootic. It is important to monitor the global spread of disease and to assess the significance of genomic changes to support prevention and control efforts during a pandemic. An understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology provides opportunities to prevent the risk of repeated re-infection of humans and requires a robust One Health-based investigation. This review paper describes the known properties and the existing gaps in scientific knowledge about the zoonotic and reverse zoonotic transmissibility of the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 disease it causes.

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Topics: Coronavirus (54%), Panzootic (51%)

3 Citations


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33 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1183/13993003.00547-2020
Wei Jie Guan1, Wenhua Liang1, Yi Zhao1, Heng Rui Liang1  +43 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. Objective To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) by stratifying the comorbidity status. Methods We analysed the data from 1590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalised patients 575 hospitals in 31 province/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between December 11th, 2019 and January 31st, 2020. We analyse the composite endpoints, which consisted of admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death. The risk of reaching to the composite endpoints was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. Results The mean age was 48.9 years. 686 patients (42.7%) were females. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached to the composite endpoints. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424–5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03–2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07–2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60–7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16–2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61–4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. Conclusion Among laboratory-confirmed cases of Covid-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.

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Topics: Comorbidity (58%), Hazard ratio (50%)

2,029 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0965-6
Quanxin Long1, Xiaojun Tang2, Qiu Lin Shi2, Qin Li3  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Jun 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: The clinical features and immune responses of asymptomatic individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been well described We studied 37 asymptomatic individuals in the Wanzhou District who were diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections but without any relevant clinical symptoms in the preceding 14 d and during hospitalization Asymptomatic individuals were admitted to the government-designated Wanzhou People's Hospital for centralized isolation in accordance with policy1 The median duration of viral shedding in the asymptomatic group was 19 d (interquartile range (IQR), 15-26 d) The asymptomatic group had a significantly longer duration of viral shedding than the symptomatic group (log-rank P = 0028) The virus-specific IgG levels in the asymptomatic group (median S/CO, 34; IQR, 16-107) were significantly lower (P = 0005) relative to the symptomatic group (median S/CO, 205; IQR, 58-382) in the acute phase Of asymptomatic individuals, 933% (28/30) and 811% (30/37) had reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels, respectively, during the early convalescent phase, as compared to 968% (30/31) and 622% (23/37) of symptomatic patients Forty percent of asymptomatic individuals became seronegative and 129% of the symptomatic group became negative for IgG in the early convalescent phase In addition, asymptomatic individuals exhibited lower levels of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines These data suggest that asymptomatic individuals had a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection The reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels in the early convalescent phase might have implications for immunity strategy and serological surveys

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Topics: Asymptomatic (64%), Interquartile range (51%)

1,854 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB7015
Jianzhong Shi1, Zhiyuan Wen1, Gongxun Zhong1, Huanliang Yang1  +17 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Apr 2020-Science
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.

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Topics: Airborne transmission (54%)

1,009 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2025179
Abstract: Covid-19 Antibodies after Mild Infection Among 34 volunteers who had recovered from mild Covid-19 illness, antiviral antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein declined wi...

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673 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41564-020-00813-8
Jeffrey Seow1, Carl Graham1, Blair Merrick2, Sam Acors1  +40 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10-15 d after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. However, due to the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population, it is not known how long antibody responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from reinfection. Using sequential serum samples collected up to 94 d post onset of symptoms (POS) from 65 individuals with real-time quantitative PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we show seroconversion (immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgA, IgG) in >95% of cases and neutralizing antibody responses when sampled beyond 8 d POS. We show that the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody response is typical of an acute viral infection, with declining neutralizing antibody titres observed after an initial peak, and that the magnitude of this peak is dependent on disease severity. Although some individuals with high peak infective dose (ID50 > 10,000) maintained neutralizing antibody titres >1,000 at >60 d POS, some with lower peak ID50 had neutralizing antibody titres approaching baseline within the follow-up period. A similar decline in neutralizing antibody titres was observed in a cohort of 31 seropositive healthcare workers. The present study has important implications when considering widespread serological testing and antibody protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, and may suggest that vaccine boosters are required to provide long-lasting protection.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (66%), Seroconversion (60%), Population (51%) ... show more

628 Citations


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