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Scene Text Recognition for Indian Languages

TL;DR: This thesis looks at all the parameters involved in the process of text recognition and determines the importance of those parameters through thorough experiments and proposes an error correction module for correcting the labels by utilizing the training data of real test datasets.
Abstract: Text recognition has been an active field in computer vision even before the beginning of the deep learning era. Due to the varied applications of recognition models, the research area has been classified into diverse categories based on the domain of the data used. Optical character recognition (OCR) is focused on scanned documents, whereas images with natural scenes and much complex backgrounds fall into the category of scene text recognition. Scene text recognition has become an exciting area of research due to the complexities and difficulties such as complex backgrounds, improper illumination, distorted images with noise, inconsistent usage of fonts and font sizes that are not usually horizontally aligned. Such cases make the task of scene text recognition more complicated and challenging. In recent years, we have observed the rise of deep learning. Subsequently, there has been an incremental growth in the recognition algorithms and datasets available for training and testing purposes. This surge has caused the performance of recognizing text in natural scenes to rise above the baseline models that were previously trained using hand-crafted features. Latin texts were the center of attention in most of these works and did not profoundly investigate the field of scene text recognition for non-Latin languages. Upon scrutiny, we observe that the performance of the current best recognition models has reached above 90% over scene text benchmark datasets. However, these recognition models do not perform as well on non-Latin languages as they did on Latin (or English) datasets. This striking difference in the performances over different languages is a rising concern among the researchers focusing on lowresource languages, and it is indeed the motivation behind our work. Scene text recognition in low-resource non-Latin languages is difficult and challenging due to the inherent complex scripts, multiple writing systems, various fonts and orientations. Despite such differences, we can also achieve Latin (English) text-like performance for low-resource non-Latin languages. In this thesis, we look at all the parameters involved in the process of text recognition and determine the importance of those parameters through thorough experiments. We use synthetic data for controlled experiments where we test the parameters as mentioned earlier in an isolated fashion to effectively identify the catalysts of text recognition. We analyse the complexity of the scripts via these synthetic data experiments. We present the results of our experiments on two baseline models, CRNN and STAR-Net models, on available datasets to ensure generalisability. In addition to this, we also propose an error correction module for correcting the labels by utilizing the training data of real test datasets.
References
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Proceedings Article
04 Sep 2014
TL;DR: This work investigates the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting using an architecture with very small convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers.
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

55,235 citations

Proceedings Article
12 Jun 2017
TL;DR: This paper proposed a simple network architecture based solely on an attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely and achieved state-of-the-art performance on English-to-French translation.
Abstract: The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent orconvolutional neural networks in an encoder and decoder configuration. The best performing such models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attentionm echanisms. We propose a novel, simple network architecture based solely onan attention mechanism, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely.Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superiorin quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less timeto train. Our single model with 165 million parameters, achieves 27.5 BLEU onEnglish-to-German translation, improving over the existing best ensemble result by over 1 BLEU. On English-to-French translation, we outperform the previoussingle state-of-the-art with model by 0.7 BLEU, achieving a BLEU score of 41.1.

52,856 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This work presents a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously, and provides comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth.
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers---8x deeper than VGG nets but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

44,703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work introduces a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals and further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutionAL features.
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features—using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with ’attention’ mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3] , our detection system has a frame rate of 5 fps ( including all steps ) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

26,458 citations

Proceedings Article
23 Feb 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that training with residual connections accelerates the training of Inception networks significantly, and they also present several new streamlined architectures for both residual and non-residual Inception Networks.
Abstract: Very deep convolutional networks have been central to the largest advances in image recognition performance in recent years. One example is the Inception architecture that has been shown to achieve very good performance at relatively low computational cost. Recently, the introduction of residual connections in conjunction with a more traditional architecture has yielded state-of-the-art performance in the 2015 ILSVRC challenge; its performance was similar to the latest generation Inception-v3 network. This raises the question of whether there are any benefit in combining the Inception architecture with residual connections. Here we give clear empirical evidence that training with residual connections accelerates the training of Inception networks significantly. There is also some evidence of residual Inception networks outperforming similarly expensive Inception networks without residual connections by a thin margin. We also present several new streamlined architectures for both residual and non-residual Inception networks. These variations improve the single-frame recognition performance on the ILSVRC 2012 classification task significantly. We further demonstrate how proper activation scaling stabilizes the training of very wide residual Inception networks. With an ensemble of three residual and one Inception-v4, we achieve 3.08 percent top-5 error on the test set of the ImageNet classification (CLS) challenge

6,761 citations