Screening for bioactivity of Mutinus elegans extracts
01 Nov 2017-Vol. 263, Iss: 2, pp 022039
About: This article is published in Microelectronics Systems Education.The article was published on 2017-11-01 and is currently open access. It has received None citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Mutinus elegans.
TL;DR: A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation and is used to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
TL;DR: It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
TL;DR: A pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system is described.
Abstract: We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system. The ultimate goal of this disease-oriented screen is to facilitate the discovery of new compounds with potential cell line-specific and/or subpanel-specific antitumor activity. In the current screening protocol, each cell line is inoculated onto microtiter plates, then preincubated for 24-28 hours. Subsequently, test agents are added in five 10-fold dilutions and the culture is incubated for an additional 48 hours. For each test agent, a dose-response profile is generated. End-point determinations of the cell viability or cell growth are performed by in situ fixation of cells, followed by staining with a protein-binding dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB). The SRB binds to the basic amino acids of cellular macromolecules; the solubilized stain is measured spectrophotometrically to determine relative cell growth or viability in treated and untreated cells. Following the pilot screening studies, a screening rate of 400 compounds per week has been consistently achieved.
TL;DR: Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases.
Abstract: The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. The chemical structure of polysaccharides and its connection to antitumor activity, including possible ways of chemical modification, experimental testing and clinical use of antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides, and possible mechanisms of their biological action, are discussed. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide–protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms are described that appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Stimulation of host immune defense systems by bioactive polymers from medicinal mushrooms has significant effects on the maturation, differentiation, and proliferation of many kinds of immune cells in the host. Many of these mushroom polymers were reported previously to have immunotherapeutic properties by facilitating growth inhibition and destruction of tumor cells. While the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central. Particularly and most importantly for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms and fungi including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects.
TL;DR: This work will review the compounds with antitumor potential identified so far in mushrooms, including low-molecular-weight (LMW, e.g. quinones, cerebrosides, isoflavones, catechols, amines, triacylglycerols, sesquiterpenes, steroids, organic germanium and selenium).
Abstract: For thousands of years medicine and natural products have been closely linked through the use of traditional medicines and natural poisons. Mushrooms have an established history of use in traditional oriental medicine, where most medicinal mushroom preparations are regarded as a tonic, that is, they have beneficial health effects without known negative side-effects and can be moderately used on a regular basis without harm. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of compounds which are modulators of tumour cell growth. Furthermore, they may have potential as functional foods and sources of novel molecules. We will review the compounds with antitumor potential identified so far in mushrooms, including low-molecular-weight (LMW, e.g. quinones, cerebrosides, isoflavones, catechols, amines, triacylglycerols, sesquiterpenes, steroids, organic germanium and selenium) and high-molecular-weight compounds (HMW, e.g. homo and heteroglucans, glycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, proteoglycans, proteins and RNA-protein complexes).