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Journal ArticleDOI

Search-and-replace genome editing without double-strand breaks or donor DNA

21 Oct 2019-Nature (Nature)-Vol. 576, Iss: 7785, pp 149-157

TL;DR: A new DNA-editing technique called prime editing offers improved versatility and efficiency with reduced byproducts compared with existing techniques, and shows potential for correcting disease-associated mutations.
Abstract: Most genetic variants that contribute to disease1 are challenging to correct efficiently and without excess byproducts2-5. Here we describe prime editing, a versatile and precise genome editing method that directly writes new genetic information into a specified DNA site using a catalytically impaired Cas9 endonuclease fused to an engineered reverse transcriptase, programmed with a prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA) that both specifies the target site and encodes the desired edit. We performed more than 175 edits in human cells, including targeted insertions, deletions, and all 12 types of point mutation, without requiring double-strand breaks or donor DNA templates. We used prime editing in human cells to correct, efficiently and with few byproducts, the primary genetic causes of sickle cell disease (requiring a transversion in HBB) and Tay-Sachs disease (requiring a deletion in HEXA); to install a protective transversion in PRNP; and to insert various tags and epitopes precisely into target loci. Four human cell lines and primary post-mitotic mouse cortical neurons support prime editing with varying efficiencies. Prime editing shows higher or similar efficiency and fewer byproducts than homology-directed repair, has complementary strengths and weaknesses compared to base editing, and induces much lower off-target editing than Cas9 nuclease at known Cas9 off-target sites. Prime editing substantially expands the scope and capabilities of genome editing, and in principle could correct up to 89% of known genetic variants associated with human diseases.
Topics: Genome editing (59%), Guide RNA (53%), Cas9 (53%)
Citations
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01 Feb 2015-
TL;DR: Current progress toward developing programmable nuclease–based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges are discussed.
Abstract: Recent advances in the development of genome editing technologies based on programmable nucleases have substantially improved our ability to make precise changes in the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Genome editing is already broadening our ability to elucidate the contribution of genetics to disease by facilitating the creation of more accurate cellular and animal models of pathological processes. A particularly tantalizing application of programmable nucleases is the potential to directly correct genetic mutations in affected tissues and cells to treat diseases that are refractory to traditional therapies. Here we discuss current progress toward developing programmable nuclease–based therapies as well as future prospects and challenges.

735 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work analyzes key considerations when choosing genome editing agents and identifies opportunities for future improvements and applications in basic research and therapeutics.
Abstract: The development of new CRISPR-Cas genome editing tools continues to drive major advances in the life sciences. Four classes of CRISPR-Cas-derived genome editing agents-nucleases, base editors, transposases/recombinases and prime editors-are currently available for modifying genomes in experimental systems. Some of these agents have also moved rapidly into the clinic. Each tool comes with its own capabilities and limitations, and major efforts have broadened their editing capabilities, expanded their targeting scope and improved editing specificity. We analyze key considerations when choosing genome editing agents and identify opportunities for future improvements and applications in basic research and therapeutics.

372 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Qiupeng Lin1, Yuan Zong1, Chenxiao Xue1, Shengxing Wang1  +16 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: The resulting suite of plant prime editors enable point mutations, insertions and deletions in rice and wheat protoplasts through codon, promoter, and editing-condition optimization.
Abstract: Prime editors, which are CRISPR-Cas9 nickase (H840A)-reverse transcriptase fusions programmed with prime editing guide RNAs (pegRNAs), can edit bases in mammalian cells without donor DNA or double-strand breaks. We adapted prime editors for use in plants through codon, promoter, and editing-condition optimization. The resulting suite of plant prime editors enable point mutations, insertions and deletions in rice and wheat protoplasts. Regenerated prime-edited rice plants were obtained at frequencies of up to 21.8%.

239 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
12 Feb 2020-Nature
TL;DR: The scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR technology for therapeutic applications in humans are discussed, highlighting both opportunities and challenges of this technology to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.
Abstract: Genome editing, which involves the precise manipulation of cellular DNA sequences to alter cell fates and organism traits, has the potential to both improve our understanding of human genetics and cure genetic disease. Here I discuss the scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) technology for therapeutic applications in humans, focusing on specific examples that highlight both opportunities and challenges. Genome editing is-or will soon be-in the clinic for several diseases, with more applications under development. The rapid pace of the field demands active efforts to ensure that this breakthrough technology is used responsibly to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.

197 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Beverly Mok1, Beverly Mok2, Beverly Mok3, Marcos H. de Moraes4  +17 moreInstitutions (5)
08 Jul 2020-Nature
TL;DR: An interbacterial toxin that catalyses the deamination of cytidines within double-stranded DNA forms part of a CRISPR-free, RNA-free base editing system that enables manipulation of human mitochondrial DNA.
Abstract: Bacterial toxins represent a vast reservoir of biochemical diversity that can be repurposed for biomedical applications. Such proteins include a group of predicted interbacterial toxins of the deaminase superfamily, members of which have found application in gene-editing techniques1,2. Because previously described cytidine deaminases operate on single-stranded nucleic acids3, their use in base editing requires the unwinding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)—for example by a CRISPR–Cas9 system. Base editing within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), however, has thus far been hindered by challenges associated with the delivery of guide RNA into the mitochondria4. As a consequence, manipulation of mtDNA to date has been limited to the targeted destruction of the mitochondrial genome by designer nucleases9,10.Here we describe an interbacterial toxin, which we name DddA, that catalyses the deamination of cytidines within dsDNA. We engineered split-DddA halves that are non-toxic and inactive until brought together on target DNA by adjacently bound programmable DNA-binding proteins. Fusions of the split-DddA halves, transcription activator-like effector array proteins, and a uracil glycosylase inhibitor resulted in RNA-free DddA-derived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs) that catalyse C•G-to-T•A conversions in human mtDNA with high target specificity and product purity. We used DdCBEs to model a disease-associated mtDNA mutation in human cells, resulting in changes in respiration rates and oxidative phosphorylation. CRISPR-free DdCBEs enable the precise manipulation of mtDNA, rather than the elimination of mtDNA copies that results from its cleavage by targeted nucleases, with broad implications for the study and potential treatment of mitochondrial disorders. An interbacterial toxin that catalyses the deamination of cytidines within double-stranded DNA forms part of a CRISPR-free, RNA-free base editing system that enables manipulation of human mitochondrial DNA.

140 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Matthew E. Ritchie1, Belinda Phipson2, Di Wu3, Yifang Hu1  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: The philosophy and design of the limma package is reviewed, summarizing both new and historical features, with an emphasis on recent enhancements and features that have not been previously described.
Abstract: limma is an R/Bioconductor software package that provides an integrated solution for analysing data from gene expression experiments. It contains rich features for handling complex experimental designs and for information borrowing to overcome the problem of small sample sizes. Over the past decade, limma has been a popular choice for gene discovery through differential expression analyses of microarray and high-throughput PCR data. The package contains particularly strong facilities for reading, normalizing and exploring such data. Recently, the capabilities of limma have been significantly expanded in two important directions. First, the package can now perform both differential expression and differential splicing analyses of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. All the downstream analysis tools previously restricted to microarray data are now available for RNA-seq as well. These capabilities allow users to analyse both RNA-seq and microarray data with very similar pipelines. Second, the package is now able to go past the traditional gene-wise expression analyses in a variety of ways, analysing expression profiles in terms of co-regulated sets of genes or in terms of higher-order expression signatures. This provides enhanced possibilities for biological interpretation of gene expression differences. This article reviews the philosophy and design of the limma package, summarizing both new and historical features, with an emphasis on recent enhancements and features that have not been previously described.

13,819 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bo Li1, Colin N. Dewey1Institutions (1)
04 Aug 2011-BMC Bioinformatics
TL;DR: It is shown that accurate gene-level abundance estimates are best obtained with large numbers of short single-end reads, and estimates of the relative frequencies of isoforms within single genes may be improved through the use of paired- end reads, depending on the number of possible splice forms for each gene.
Abstract: RNA-Seq is revolutionizing the way transcript abundances are measured. A key challenge in transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data is the handling of reads that map to multiple genes or isoforms. This issue is particularly important for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies in the absence of sequenced genomes, as it is difficult to determine which transcripts are isoforms of the same gene. A second significant issue is the design of RNA-Seq experiments, in terms of the number of reads, read length, and whether reads come from one or both ends of cDNA fragments. We present RSEM, an user-friendly software package for quantifying gene and isoform abundances from single-end or paired-end RNA-Seq data. RSEM outputs abundance estimates, 95% credibility intervals, and visualization files and can also simulate RNA-Seq data. In contrast to other existing tools, the software does not require a reference genome. Thus, in combination with a de novo transcriptome assembler, RSEM enables accurate transcript quantification for species without sequenced genomes. On simulated and real data sets, RSEM has superior or comparable performance to quantification methods that rely on a reference genome. Taking advantage of RSEM's ability to effectively use ambiguously-mapping reads, we show that accurate gene-level abundance estimates are best obtained with large numbers of short single-end reads. On the other hand, estimates of the relative frequencies of isoforms within single genes may be improved through the use of paired-end reads, depending on the number of possible splice forms for each gene. RSEM is an accurate and user-friendly software tool for quantifying transcript abundances from RNA-Seq data. As it does not rely on the existence of a reference genome, it is particularly useful for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies. In addition, RSEM has enabled valuable guidance for cost-efficient design of quantification experiments with RNA-Seq, which is currently relatively expensive.

10,559 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Le Cong1, Le Cong2, F. Ann Ran2, F. Ann Ran1  +12 moreInstitutions (5)
15 Feb 2013-Science
Abstract: Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.

10,364 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
17 Aug 2012-Science
TL;DR: This study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.
Abstract: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. We show here that in a subset of these systems, the mature crRNA that is base-paired to trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) forms a two-RNA structure that directs the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 to introduce double-stranded (ds) breaks in target DNA. At sites complementary to the crRNA-guide sequence, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain cleaves the complementary strand, whereas the Cas9 RuvC-like domain cleaves the noncomplementary strand. The dual-tracrRNA:crRNA, when engineered as a single RNA chimera, also directs sequence-specific Cas9 dsDNA cleavage. Our study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.

10,148 citations


01 Feb 2013-
TL;DR: Two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems are engineered and it is demonstrated that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.
Abstract: Genome Editing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) function as part of an adaptive immune system in a range of prokaryotes: Invading phage and plasmid DNA is targeted for cleavage by complementary CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) bound to a CRISPR-associated endonuclease (see the Perspective by van der Oost). Cong et al. (p. 819, published online 3 January) and Mali et al. (p. 823, published online 3 January) adapted this defense system to function as a genome editing tool in eukaryotic cells. A bacterial genome defense system is adapted to function as a genome-editing tool in mammalian cells. [Also see Perspective by van der Oost] Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.

9,336 citations


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201928
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