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Journal ArticleDOI

Seasonal effects on the thermoregulation of invasive rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri)

01 Dec 2013-Journal of Thermal Biology (Pergamon)-Vol. 38, Iss: 8, pp 553-559
TL;DR: Examination of the effects of seasonal changes in ambient temperatures of captive-bred rose-ringed parakeets suggests that this species is physiologically and behaviorally equipped to cope with a range of climatic situations and this partly explains their global success as an invader species.
About: This article is published in Journal of Thermal Biology.The article was published on 2013-12-01. It has received 19 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Psittacula krameri.
Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The ring-necked parakeet is one of the most successful invaders in the world as discussed by the authors, having a large distribution range, recorded in over 35 countries outside its native extent of occurrence.
Abstract: Over 60 out of 355 currently living parrot species have established at least one breeding population outside their natural distribution ranges. Among those, the ring-necked parakeet is one of the most successful invaders. This species is a gregarious Afro-Asian parakeet with an extremely large distribution range, recorded in over 35 countries outside its native extent of occurrence. Despite being one of the most introduced bird species throughout the world, its interactions with native biodiversity and environment are not completely known and rely mainly on anecdotal evidence. Future researchers are therefore required to fill these gaps. Trunk cavities represent the preferred breeding sites of these alien parrots and indicate potential routes of direct and indirect competition with native hole-nesting bird species, such as nuthatches and starlings. Interactions with tree squirrels, bats and insects are rarely reported but may be more severe than currently known. Droppings by ring-necked parakeets may alter the herbaceous vegetation under the roost but direct cause–effect relationships for this phenomenon are hard to assess if no data about floral composition before the time of invasion is available. Ring-necked parakeets may have economic impacts, being responsible for crop damage, as well as societal impacts; three bird strikes with airplanes involved this species in England. The ring-necked parakeet is a potential reservoir of a plethora of diseases transmittable to humans and wildlife. No data concerning ecosystem recovery after the removal of ring-necked parakeets is available, as eradication and numerical control programmes are often hampered by the emotional affiliation which links humans to these bright birds.

37 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: A review of the current knowledge on terrestrial vertebrate invasions in South Africa can be found in this paper, where the authors consider the importance that the NEM:BA Alien and Invasive Species Regulations have had on the research of invasive terrestrial vertebrates and emphasise the importance of regulations for domestic exotics.
Abstract: In this chapter we review the current knowledge on terrestrial vertebrate invasions in South Africa. Thirty species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians are considered to have arrived over the last 10,000 years, with two thirds having become invasive in the last 150 years. Half of the species are mammals, a third birds, with three reptiles and two amphibians. Although there are multiple pathways, there appears to be a trend from species that were deliberately introduced in the past, to accidental introductions in the last ~100 years, which are a by-product of increasing trade, both internationally and within South Africa. Few invasive terrestrial vertebrate species have had their impacts formally assessed within South Africa, but international assessments suggest that many can have Moderate or Major environmental and socio-economic impacts. Of particular concern is the growing demand for alien pets within the region, with increasing amounts of escapees being encountered in the wild. We consider the importance that the NEM:BA Alien and Invasive Species Regulations have had on the research of invasive terrestrial vertebrates in South Africa, and emphasise the importance of regulations for domestic exotics.

29 citations


Cites background from "Seasonal effects on the thermoregul..."

  • ...Physiological experiments on caged South African parakeets suggest that these birds are tolerant of a wide range of ambient, especially low temperatures, and are therefore equipped to cope with a variety of climatic situations in the country (Thabethe et al. 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Support is provided for the hypothesis that the match between climate seasonality and timing of reproduction (or other important life cycle events) can affect the establishment success, invasive potential and distribution range of introduced non-native species, beyond the mere effect of climate similarity.
Abstract: Climate similarity favors biological invasion, but a match between seasonality in the novel range and the timing of life cycle events of the invader also influences the outcome of species introduction. Yet, phenology effects on invasion success have generally been neglected. Here we study whether a phenological mismatch limits the non-native range of a globally successful invader, the Ring-necked parakeet, in Europe. Given the latitudes at which parakeets have established across Europe, they breed earlier than expected based on breeding dates from the native Asian range. Moreover, comparing the breeding dates of European populations to those of parakeets in the native Asian range, to five native breeding bird species in Europe and to the start of the growing season of four native European trees shows that the discrepancy between expected and actual breeding phenology is greater in northern Europe. In northern European populations, this temporal mismatch appears to have negative effects on hatching success, and on population growth rates in years that are colder than average in the first six months. Phenological mismatch also can explain why parakeets from African populations (that are more likely to breed in autumn) have been poor invaders compared to parakeets from Asia. These lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the reproductive phenology of the Ring-necked parakeet can be a limiting factor for establishment and range expansion in colder climates. Our results provide growing support for the hypothesis that the match between climate seasonality and timing of reproduction (or other important life cycle events) can affect the establishment success, invasive potential and distribution range of introduced non-native species, beyond the mere effect of climate similarity.

20 citations


Cites background from "Seasonal effects on the thermoregul..."

  • ...Indeed, Thabethe et al. (2013) found that adult ring-necked parakeets show no hypothermia at 5 8C, and the species may thus be better able to withstand cold temperatures than would be expected from its largely (sub)tropical origin....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: All the introduced invasive bird species in South Africa were climatically suitable to South Africa and Passer domesticus, Sturnus vulgaris, and Anas platyrhynchos each had relatively large climatic suitability distributions, which need to be incorporated in decision-making and eradication plans.
Abstract: Globally, various avian species have been introduced accidentally and deliberately by humans through different pathways. Some of these species were able to establish, multiply, and become invasive. In this study, we identified areas that are climatically suitable for seven introduced invasive bird species and assessed the environmental and socio-economic impacts associated with the selected bird species in South Africa. We used present distribution records to predict potential climatic suitability distributions and used the Generic Impact Scoring Scheme to assess the impacts associated with seven invasive bird species in South Africa. We found that all the seven species were climatically suitable to South Africa and Passer domesticus, Sturnus vulgaris, and Anas platyrhynchos each had relatively large climatic suitability distributions. The climatic suitability for all the species was within their occurrence ranges in and outside South Africa. For impact assessments, we found that all seven selected species had impacts, with A. platyrhynchos, Acridotheres tristis, Columba livia, and Psittacula krameri having the highest overall impacts respectively. The socio-economic impact ranked higher than environmental impact for all species. The socio-economic impacts were frequently through agricultural production and human infrastructure, while the environmental impact was mostly through impacts of birds on other animals and competition. These need to be incorporated in decision-making and eradication plans for these alien invasive birds in South Africa.

16 citations


Cites background from "Seasonal effects on the thermoregul..."

  • ...…wide climatic ranges might be more opportunistic and have phenotypic plasticity to make their survival possible in a wide environmental range, e.g. the rose-ringed parakeet and the monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus (Spreyer and Bucher 1998; Strubbe and Matthysen 2009a, b; Thabethe et al. 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2016-Biologia
TL;DR: The recorded information suggests that this species has increased considerably since the last counts done, and the present status of this species in the city may lead to a further expansion into new nearby areas.
Abstract: Of all alien parrots, the rose-ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri is the most successful invasive species, with established populations in at least 35 countries. This paper reports a study, conducted from March to August 2015, on the population size in Lisbon (Portugal) using roost counts. We found only one important roost for this parrot in Campo Grande, where a maximum of 644 individuals were counted in July. The recorded information suggests that this species has increased considerably since the last counts done. The present status of this species in the city may lead to a further expansion into new nearby areas.

14 citations


Cites background from "Seasonal effects on the thermoregul..."

  • ...For example, the negative correlation between the number of frosty days and the establishment success in colder areas (Strubbe & Matthysen 2009) and temperatures below 5◦C that can cause hypothermia, as is shown in an experiment where the thermoregulatory metabolic responses were measured under different temperature regimes (Thabethe et al. 2013) and may explain this species’ adaptation and establishment in the city....

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  • ...Other features of this species, as tolerance to human presence, an omnivorous diet and a great reproductive rate (Thabethe et al. 2013) make them highly successful invasive alien species with a potential to compete with the native fauna and even become pests (Strubbe & Matthysen 2007)....

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  • ...…& Matthysen 2009) and temperatures below 5◦C that can cause hypothermia, as is shown in an experiment where the thermoregulatory metabolic responses were measured under different temperature regimes (Thabethe et al. 2013) and may explain this species’ adaptation and establishment in the city....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reanalyzed the extinctions included in the IUCN Red List database on a species-by-species basis and reassessed the role of invasive species in those extinctions, finding that the results agree with those of recent statistical analyses.
Abstract: In a recent Opinion article in TREE [1xAre invasive species a major cause of extinctions?. Gurevitch, J. and Padilla, D.K. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2004; 19: 470–474Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (572)See all References[1], Gurevitch and Padilla concluded that the importance of invasive species in causing declines and extinctions of species is unproven. They analyzed the IUCN Red List database [2xSee all References[2] and stated that only 6% of the taxa are threatened with extinction as a result of invasion by alien species and <2% (ten terrestrial plants and no animal species) of the 762 extinctions were the result of the introduction of alien species. We believe that these figures and the message of the article are misleading.The IUCN database includes a searchable hierarchical classification of threats to wildlife (e.g. habitat loss, invasive alien species, harvesting, and so on), which was used by Gurevitch and Padilla in their article [1xAre invasive species a major cause of extinctions?. Gurevitch, J. and Padilla, D.K. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2004; 19: 470–474Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (572)See all References[1]. However, this classification system is used in only 5.1% (39 out of 762) of the extinct species (e.g. there are 129 extinct species of birds, but none of them has been assigned a extinction cause, despite the fact that many are among the best documented cases of extinction) and detailed information about the causes of extinction is provided in other fields of the database (e.g. the robust white-eye Zosterops strenuus, endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia, ‘was common before 1918, but plummeted to extinction following the arrival of black rat’). We reanalyzed the extinctions included in the IUCN Red List database on a species-by-species basis and reassessed the role of invasive species in those extinctions.The conclusion is radically different from that reached by Gurevitch and Padilla. Of the 680 extinct animal species, causes could be compiled for 170 (25%), of which 91 (54%) included the effects of invasive species. For 34 cases (20%), invasive species were the only cited cause of extinction. Habitat destruction and harvesting (hunting and/or gathering) were cited for 82 and 77 species, respectively.Our results agree with those of recent statistical analyses [3xAvian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Blackburn, T.M. et al. Science. 2004; 305: 1955–1958Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (345)See all References, 4xMammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. Burbidge, A.A. and Manly, F.J. J. Biogeogr. 2002; 29: 465–473Crossref | Scopus (73)See all References], modelling of future scenarios [5xBiodiversity – Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Sala, O.E. et al. Science. 2000; 287: 1770–1774Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (3430)See all References[5], and several reviews of particular taxa by expert groups that have concluded that invasive species are the leading cause of extinction of birds (65 out of 129 spp.) [6xThreatened Birds of the World. BirdLife International. See all References[6] and the second cause of the extinction of North American fish (27 out of 40 spp. [7xExtinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Miller, R.R. et al. Fisheries. 1989; 14: 22–38Crossref | Scopus (264)See all References[7]), world fish (11 out of 23 spp. [8xSee all References[8]) and mammals (12 out of 25 spp. [9xSee all References[9]). Although extinction is often the end result of invasions, there are other ecological and evolutionary impacts of biotic homogenization that are less understood [10xEcological and evolutionary consequences of biotic homogenization. Olden, J.D. et al. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2004; 19: 18–24Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (477)See all References, 11xThe evolutionary impact of invasive species. Mooney, H.A. and Cleland, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2001; 98: 5446–5451Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (687)See all References], thus prevention and the precautionary principle are of particular relevance to invasive species.

1,381 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Impacts in the UK are reviewed, along with current legislation and guidelines relating to the introduction and control of non-native species, to suggest further enforcement of existing legislation and action against unlicensed releases is necessary.
Abstract: 1. The introduction of non-native species continues to cause ecological concern globally, but there have been no published reviews of their effects in the UK. Impacts in the UK are therefore reviewed, along with current legislation and guidelines relating to the introduction and control of such species. 2. A large number of non-native species have been introduced to the UK, both deliberately and accidentally, but only a small number of introduced non-native species have established and caused detrimental ecological impacts. However, general declines in UK biodiversity, and the potential effects of future climate change, may increase the susceptibility of ecosystems to invasions. 3. Detrimental impacts of non-native species on native biota have occurred through competition, predation, herbivory, habitat alteration, disease and genetic effects (i.e. hybridization). There are potential effects on genetic biodiversity as well as species biodiversity. 4. Several high profile examples highlight the technical difficulties, and financial implications, of removing an introduced species once it is established. Few UK control or eradication programmes have been successful. 5. Control might be more feasible if ‘problem’ species could be identified at an earlier stage of establishment. However, the poor success of attempts to characterize invasive species and predict which will have negative impacts highlight the individual and unpredictable nature of invasions. The difficulties of making general predictions suggest that every proposed species introduction should be subject to rigorous ecological characterization and risk assessment prior to introduction. 6. The plethora of UK legislation and guidelines developed to reduce impacts of non-native species only go part of the way towards ameliorating impact. Many species already established in the wild might cause future problems. Illegal releases and escapes of non-native species may augment feral populations or establish new colonies. While regulation of imports and releases is important, further enforcement of existing legislation and action against unlicensed releases is necessary.

469 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Researchers are counsel to discontinue forming ratios in an attempt to normalize physiological data for variation in body size and to adopt a reliable alternative, and readers of scientific research are advised not to place great confidence in results of studies that use ratios for scaling.
Abstract: Researchers commonly compute percentages or size-specific indices in an attempt to remove effects of body size from physiological data. Unfortunately, such ratios seldom eliminate the influence of body size on a physiological response and the ratios introduce major (but often unrecognized) problems with respect to statistical analysis and interpretation of the data. Indeed, these shortcomings of ratios frequently lead investigators to arrive at incorrect conclusions in otherwise flawless experiments. A superior alternative to using ratios combines graphical analysis and the analysis of covariance, which is a widely available statistical routine that uses least-squares regression to remove effects of body size from physiological data. Accordingly, we counsel researchers to discontinue forming ratios in an attempt to normalize physiological data for variation in body size and to adopt a reliable alternative. We also advise readers of scientific research not to place great confidence in results of studies that use ratios for scaling.

448 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Slight nocturnal decrease in Tb (“hypothermia”) is shown in many birds as an adaptation to low food supply and/or heavy cold load and exogenous, artificial rewarming allows Tb to fall lower than normal torpor-levels.

321 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that broad environmental tolerance may predispose some birds to thrive in urban habitats, and the mechanisms mediating such environmental tolerance warrant further investigation.
Abstract: Urbanization dramatically changes the composition and diversity of biotic communities. The characteristics distinguishing species that persist in urban environments, however, are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that broadly adapted organisms are better able to tolerate urbanization, using a phylogenetically controlled, global comparison of birds. We compared elevational and latitudinal distributions of 217 urban birds found in 73 of the world's largest cities with distributions of 247 rural congeners to test the hypothesis that urban birds possess broader environmental tolerance. Urban birds had markedly broader environmental tolerance than rural congeners, as estimated by elevational and latitudinal distributions. Our results suggest that broad environmental tolerance may predispose some birds to thrive in urban habitats. The mechanisms mediating such environmental tolerance warrant further investigation, but probably include greater behavioural, physiological and ecological flexibility.

288 citations