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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3171/2020.8.JNS201810

Second window ICG predicts gross-total resection and progression-free survival during brain metastasis surgery.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Neurosurgery (American Association of Neurological Surgeons)-Vol. 135, Iss: 4, pp 1-10
Abstract: Objective Metastases are the most common intracranial malignancies and complete resection can provide relief of neurological symptoms and reduce recurrence. The authors' prospective pilot study in 2017 demonstrated promising results for the application of high-dose, delayed imaging of indocyanine green (ICG), known as second window ICG (SWIG), in patients undergoing surgery for brain metastases. In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated intraoperative imaging and clinical outcomes of treatment using SWIG. Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled in an approved study of high-dose, delayed ICG (SWIG) and received 5 mg/kg (2014-2018) or 2.5 mg/kg (2018-2019) ICG 24 hours preoperatively. Intraoperatively, near-infrared (NIR) imaging was performed using a dedicated NIR exoscope. NIR images were analyzed and the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was calculated to quantify fluorescence. Residual fluorescence on the postresection NIR view was compared and correlated to the residual gadolinium enhancement on postoperative MRI. Patient survival and predictive factors were analyzed. Results In total, 51 intracranial metastases were surgically treated in 47 patients in this cohort. All 51 metastatic tumors demonstrated strong NIR fluorescence (mean SBR 4.9). In tumors ≤ 10 mm from the cortical surface, SWIG with 5 mg/kg ICG produced enhanced transdural tumor visibility (91.3%) compared to 2.5 mg/kg (52.9%; p = 0.0047). Neoplastic margin detection using NIR fluorescence compared to white light improved sensitivity, albeit lowered specificity; however, increasing the SBR cutoff for positive fluorescence significantly improved specificity without sacrificing sensitivity, increasing the overall accuracy from 57.5% to 72.5%. A lack of residual NIR fluorescence after resection was closely correlated with a lack of residual enhancement on postoperative MRI (p = 0.007). Among the 16 patients in whom tumor recurred at the site of surgery, postoperative MRI successfully predicted 8 cases, whereas the postresection NIR view predicted 12 cases. Progression-free survival rate at 12 months was greater for patients without residual NIR fluorescence (38%) than for those without residual enhancement on postoperative MRI (29%). Conclusions The current study demonstrates the clinical benefits of the SWIG technique in surgery for patients with brain metastases. Specifically, this technique allows for dose-dependent, transdural localization of neoplasms and improved sensitivity in neoplastic margin detection. Postresection residual fluorescence can be a powerful tool to evaluate extent of resection in conjunction with MRI, and it may guide decisions on brain metastasis management.

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Topics: Indocyanine green (54%)
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3171/2020.10.FOCUS20782
Clare W Teng1, Clare W Teng2, Vincent Huang1, Vincent Huang2  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Indocyanine green (ICG) is a water-soluble dye that was approved by the FDA for biomedical purposes in 1956. Initially used to measure cardiocirculatory and hepatic functions, ICG's fluorescent properties in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum soon led to its application in ophthalmic angiography. In the early 2000s, ICG was formally introduced in neurosurgery as an angiographic tool. In 2016, the authors' group pioneered a novel technique with ICG named second-window ICG (SWIG), which involves infusion of a high dose of ICG (5.0 mg/kg) in patients 24 hours prior to surgery. To date, applications of SWIG have been reported in patients with high-grade gliomas, meningiomas, brain metastases, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, and pinealomas.The applications of ICG have clearly expanded rapidly across different specialties since its initial development. As an NIR fluorophore, ICG has advantages over other FDA-approved fluorophores, all of which are currently in the visible-light spectrum, because of NIR fluorescence's increased tissue penetration and decreased autofluorescence. Recently, interest in the latest applications of ICG in brain tumor surgery has grown beyond its role as an NIR fluorophore, extending into shortwave infrared imaging and integration into nanotechnology. This review aims to summarize reported clinical studies on ICG fluorescence-guided surgery of intracranial tumors, as well as to provide an overview of the literature on emerging technologies related to the utility of ICG in neuro-oncological surgeries, including the following aspects: 1) ICG fluorescence in the NIR-II window; 2) ICG for photoacoustic imaging; and 3) ICG nanoparticles for combined diagnostic imaging and therapy (theranostic) applications.

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Topics: Indocyanine green (64%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FBIOE.2021.746815
Xue-feng Shi, Bin Ji1, Yanyan Kong1, Yihui Guan1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has demonstrated versatile applications in biomedical research, visualizing the disease pathophysiology and monitoring the treatment effect in an animal model, as well as toward applications in the clinical setting. Given the complex disease mechanism, multimodal imaging provides important etiological insights with different molecular, structural, and functional readouts in vivo. Various multimodal optoacoustic molecular imaging approaches have been applied in preclinical brain imaging studies, including optoacoustic/fluorescence imaging, optoacoustic imaging/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optoacoustic imaging/MRI/Raman, optoacoustic imaging/positron emission tomography, and optoacoustic/computed tomography. There is a rapid development in molecular imaging contrast agents employing a multimodal imaging strategy for pathological targets involved in brain diseases. Many chemical dyes for optoacoustic imaging have fluorescence properties and have been applied in hybrid optoacoustic/fluorescence imaging. Nanoparticles are widely used as hybrid contrast agents for their capability to incorporate different imaging components, tunable spectrum, and photostability. In this review, we summarize contrast agents including chemical dyes and nanoparticles applied in multimodal optoacoustic brain imaging integrated with other modalities in small animals, and provide outlook for further research.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNEUR.2021.682151
Abstract: Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) allows surgeons to have improved visualization of tumor tissue in the operating room, enabling maximal safe resection of malignant brain tumors. Over the past two decades, multiple fluorescent agents have been studied for FGS, including 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), fluorescein sodium, and indocyanine green (ICG). Both non-targeted and targeted fluorescent agents are currently being used in clinical practice, as well as under investigation, for glioma visualization and resection. While the efficacy of intraoperative fluorescence in studied fluorophores has been well established in the literature, the effect of timing on fluorophore administration in glioma surgery has not been as well depicted. In the past year, recent studies of 5-ALA use have shown that intraoperative fluorescence may persist beyond the previously studied window used in prior multicenter trials. Additionally, the use of fluorophores for different brain tumor types is discussed in detail, including a discussion of choosing the right fluorophore based on tumor etiology. In the following review, the authors will describe the temporal nature of the various fluorophores used in glioma surgery, what remains uncertain in FGS, and provide a guide for using fluorescence as a surgical adjunct in brain tumor surgery.

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Topics: Brain tumor (51%), Glioma (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NANO11123185
24 Nov 2021-Nanomaterials
Abstract: Spectroscopic approach with fluorescence time resolution allows one to determine the state of a brain tumor and its microenvironment via changes in the fluorescent dye’s fluorescence lifetime. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an acknowledged infra-red fluorescent dye that self-assembles into stable aggregate forms (ICG NPs). ICG NPs aggregates have a tendency to accumulate in the tumor with a maximum accumulation at 24 h after systemic administration, enabling extended intraoperative diagnostic. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of ICG and ICG NPs demonstrates different values for ICG monomers and H-aggregates, indicating promising suitability for fluorescent diagnostics of brain tumors due to their affinity to tumor cells and stability in biological tissue.

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Topics: Indocyanine green (63%)

Open accessDOI: 10.1093/NOAJNL/VDAB130
27 Nov 2021-
Abstract: As the epidemiological and clinical burden of brain metastases continues to grow, advances in neurosurgical care are imperative. From standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to functional neuroimaging, preoperative workups for metastatic disease allow high-resolution detection of lesions and at-risk structures, facilitating safe and effective surgical planning. Minimally invasive neurosurgical approaches, including keyhole craniotomies and tubular retractors, optimize the preservation of normal parenchyma without compromising extent of resection. Supramarginal surgery has pushed the boundaries of achieving complete removal of metastases without recurrence, especially in eloquent regions when paired with intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachytherapy has highlighted the potential of locally delivering therapeutic agents to the resection cavity with high rates of local control. Neuronavigation has become a cornerstone of operative workflow, while intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and intraoperative brain mapping generate real-time renderings of the brain unaffected by brain shift. Endoscopes, exoscopes, and fluorescent-guided surgery enable increasingly high-definition visualizations of metastatic lesions that were previously difficult to achieve. Pushed forward by these multidisciplinary innovations, neurosurgery has never been a safer, more effective treatment for patients with brain metastases.

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Topics: Craniotomy (54%), Neuronavigation (52%)
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34 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.280.17.1485
04 Nov 1998-JAMA
Abstract: Context.—For the treatment of a single metastasis to the brain, surgical resection combined with postoperative radiotherapy is more effective than treatment with radiotherapy alone. However, the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy after complete surgical resection has not been established.Objective.—To determine if postoperative radiotherapy resulted in improved neurologic control of disease and increased survival.Design.—Multicenter, randomized, parallel group trial.Setting.—University-affiliated cancer treatment facilities.Patients.—Ninety-five patients who had single metastases to the brain that were treated with complete surgical resections (as verified by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging) between September 1989 and November 1997 were entered into the study.Interventions.—Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with postoperative whole-brain radiotherapy (radiotherapy group, 49 patients) or no further treatment (observation group, 46 patients) for the brain metastasis, with median follow-up of 48 weeks and 43 weeks, respectively.Main Outcome Measures.—The primary end point was recurrence of tumor in the brain; secondary end points were length of survival, cause of death, and preservation of ability to function independently.Results.—Recurrence of tumor anywhere in the brain was less frequent in the radiotherapy group than in the observation group (9 [18%] of 49 vs 32 [70%] of 46; P<.001). Postoperative radiotherapy prevented brain recurrence at the site of the original metastasis (5 [10%] of 49 vs 21 [46%] of 46; P<.001) and at other sites in the brain (7 [14%] of 49 vs 17 [37%] of 46; P <.01). Patients in the radiotherapy group were less likely to die of neurologic causes than patients in the observation group (6 [14%] of 43 who died vs 17 [44%] of 39; P =.003). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in overall length of survival or the length of time that patients remained functionally independent.Conclusions.—Patients with cancer and single metastases to the brain who receive treatment with surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy have fewer recurrences of cancer in the brain and are less likely to die of neurologic causes than similar patients treated with surgical resection alone.

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Topics: Brain metastasis (61%), Radiation therapy (50%)

1,542 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.30.1655
Abstract: Purpose This European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial assesses whether adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) increases the duration of functional independence after surgery or radiosurgery of brain metastases. Patients and Methods Patients with one to three brain metastases of solid tumors (small-cell lung cancer excluded) with stable systemic disease or asymptomatic primary tumors and WHO performance status (PS) of 0 to 2 were treated with complete surgery or radiosurgery and randomly assigned to adjuvant WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions) or observation (OBS). The primary end point was time to WHO PS deterioration to more than 2. Results Of 359 patients, 199 underwent radiosurgery, and 160 underwent surgery. In the radiosurgery group, 100 patients were allocated to OBS, and 99 were allocated to WBRT. After surgery, 79 patients were allocated to OBS, and 81 were allocated to adjuvant WBRT. The median time to WHO PS more than 2 was 10.0 months (95% CI, 8.1 to 11.7 months) after OBS and 9.5 months (95% CI, 7.8 to 11.9 months) after WBRT (P .71). Overall survival was similar in the WBRT and OBS arms (median, 10.9 v 10.7 months, respectively; P .89). WBRT reduced the 2-year relapse rate both at initial sites (surgery: 59% to 27%, P .001; radiosurgery: 31% to 19%, P .040) and at new sites (surgery: 42% to 23%, P .008; radiosurgery: 48% to 33%, P .023). Salvage therapies were used more frequently after OBS than after WBRT. Intracranial progression caused death in 78 (44%) of 179 patients in the OBS arm and in 50 (28%) of 180 patients in the WBRT arm. Conclusion After radiosurgery or surgery of a limited number of brain metastases, adjuvant WBRT reduces intracranial relapses and neurologic deaths but fails to improve the duration of functional independence and overall survival. J Clin Oncol 29:134-141. © 2010 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

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Topics: Radiosurgery (51%), Survival rate (51%)

1,396 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11912-011-0203-Y
Abstract: Brain metastases are one of the most common neurologic complications of cancer. The incidence is 9%–17% based on various studies, although the exact incidence is thought to be higher. The incidence is increasing with the availability of improved imaging techniques which aid early diagnosis, and effective systemic treatment regimens which prolong life, thus allowing cancer to disseminate to the brain. Lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the most frequent to develop brain metastases, and account for 67%–80% of all cancers. Most patients with brain metastases have synchronous extracerebral metastases. Some patients present with no known primary cancer diagnosis. In children, brain metastases are rare; germ cell tumors, sarcomas, and neuroblastoma are the common offenders.

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Topics: Cancer (59%), Epidemiology of cancer (58%), Breast cancer (54%) ... show more

668 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-6-48
15 May 2011-Radiation Oncology
Abstract: to investigate the factors affecting survival and toxicity in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), with special attention to volumes of brain receiving a specific dose (V10 - V16 Gy) as predictors for brain radionecrosis. Two hundred six consecutive patients with 310 cerebral metastases less than 3.5 cm were treated with SRS as primary treatment and followed prospectively at University of Rome La Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital. Overall survival, brain control, and local control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method calculated from the time of SRS. Univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to determine the predictive value of prognostic factors for treatment outcome and SRS-related complications. Median overall survival and brain control were 14.1 months and 10 months, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 58% and 24%, and respective brain control were 43% and 22%. Sixteen patients recurred locally after SRS, with 1-year and 2-year local control rates of 92% and 84%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, stable extracranial disease and KPS >70 were associated with the most significant survival benefit. Neurological complications were recorded in 27 (13%) patients. Severe neurological complications (RTOG Grade 3 and 4) occurred in 5.8% of patients. Brain radionecrosis occurred in 24% of treated lesions, being symptomatic in 10% and asymptomatic in 14%. On multivariate analysis, V10 through V16 Gy were independent risk factors for radionecrosis, with V10 Gy and V12 Gy being the most predictive (p = 0.0001). For V10 Gy >12.6 cm3 and V12 Gy >10.9 cm3 the risk of radionecrosis was 47%. SRS alone represents a feasible option as initial treatment for patients with brain metastases, however a significant subset of patients may develop neurological complications. Lesions with V12 Gy >8.5 cm3 carries a risk of radionecrosis >10% and should be considered for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy especially when located in/near eloquent areas.

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Topics: Radiosurgery (53%)

450 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70057-4
Nan Lin1, Eudocia Q. Lee1, Hidefumi Aoyama2, Igor J. Barani3  +23 moreInstitutions (19)
01 Jun 2015-Lancet Oncology
Abstract: CNS metastases are the most common cause of malignant brain tumours in adults. Historically, patients with brain metastases have been excluded from most clinical trials, but their inclusion is now becoming more common. The medical literature is difficult to interpret because of substantial variation in the response and progression criteria used across clinical trials. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) working group is an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop standard response and progression criteria for use in clinical trials of treatment for brain metastases. Previous efforts have focused on aspects of trial design, such as patient population, variations in existing response and progression criteria, and challenges when incorporating neurological, neuro-cognitive, and quality-of-life endpoints into trials of patients with brain metastases. Here, we present our recommendations for standard response and progression criteria for the assessment of brain metastases in clinical trials. The proposed criteria will hopefully facilitate the development of novel approaches to this difficult problem by providing more uniformity in the assessment of CNS metastases across trials.

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Topics: Clinical trial (53%)

431 Citations