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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12729

Securing fruit production: Opportunities from the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of postharvest fungal infections.

04 Mar 2021-Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 20, Iss: 3, pp 2508-2533
Abstract: Fruit-based diets have been adopted by the public worldwide because of their nutritional value. Many advances have also been made in the elucidation of host-pathogen interaction in the postharvest phase of fruits, in the hope of improving the management of diseases caused by pathogenic molds. In this study, we presented the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic mold infects fruit in the postharvest phase, and focused on the knowledge gained from recent molecular techniques such as differential analysis of gene expression, targeted insertion, and mutagenesis. Current postharvest pathogenic fungal control strategies were then examined on the basis of their mechanisms for altering the infection process in order to explore new perspectives for securing fruit production. We found that biotechnological advances have led to an understanding of the new basic molecular processes involved in fruit fungal infection and to the identification of new genes, proteins and key factors that could serve as ideal targets for innovative antifungal strategies. In addition, the most commonly used steps to evaluate an approach to disrupt the fruit fungal infection process are mainly based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, spore germination, disruption of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, induction of oxidative stress, cell wall membrane damage, and inhibition of key enzymes. Finally, the alteration of the molecular mechanisms of signaling and response pathways to infection stimulation should also guide the development of effective control strategies to ensure fruit production.

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Topics: Spore germination (55%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12783
Abstract: Fruit-based diets are recognized for their benefits to human health. The safety of fruit is a global concern for scientists. Fruit microbiome represents the whole microorganisms that are associated with a fruit. These microbes are either found on the surfaces (epiphytes) or in the tissues of the fruit (endophytes). The recent knowledge gained from these microbial communities is considered relevant to the field of biological control in prevention of postharvest fruit pathology. In this study, the importance of the microbiome of certain fruits and how it holds promise for solving the problems inherent in biocontrol and postharvest crop protection are summarized. Research needs on the fruit microbiome are highlighted. Data from DNA sequencing and "meta-omics" technologies very recently applied to the study of microbial communities of fruits in the postharvest context are also discussed. Various fruit parameters, management practices, and environmental conditions are the main determinants of the microbiome. Microbial communities can be classified according to their structure and function in fruit tissues. A critical mechanism of microbial biological control agents is to reshape and interact with the microbiome of the fruit. The ability to control the microbiome of any fruit is a great potential in postharvest management of fruits. Research on the fruit microbiome offers important opportunities to develop postharvest biocontrol strategies and products, as well as the health profile of the fruit.

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Topics: Microbiome (57%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.POSTHARVBIO.2021.111686
Pengyu Zhao1, Weidan Li1, Chaoying Zhen1, Ke Wang1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has several physiological functions and broad application prospects. In this study, as a tool used for transcriptomics, RNA-seq sequencing was employed to determine the mechanism by which GABA slows browning and induces resistance against the growth of bacterial in fresh-cut apples. GABA altered the expression level of genes related to the synthesis of browning enzymes and phenolic substances in fresh-cut apples, which slowed the browning process during storage. Additionally, GABA promoted the gene expression of enzymes or proteins related to disease resistance, which resultantly induced disease resistance in fresh-cut apples. Notably, GABA maintained the integrity and stability of the cell wall composition and structure in apple tissues to reduce browning and induce disease resistance. Our findings revealed the mechanism by which GABA acts as a protective agent against browning and bacterial growth in for fresh-cut apples.

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Topics: Browning (57%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26237164
26 Nov 2021-Molecules
Abstract: A worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections, emergence of new fungal strains, and antifungal resistance to commercially available antibiotics indicate the need to investigate new treatment options for fungal diseases. Therefore, the interest in exploring the antifungal activity of medicinal plants has now been increased to discover phyto-therapeutics in replacement to conventional antifungal drugs. The study was conducted to explore and identify the mechanism of action of antifungal agents of edible plants, including Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum tamala, Amomum subulatum, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Mentha piperita, Coriandrum sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Brassica oleraceae var. italica. The antifungal potential was assessed via the disc diffusion method and, subsequently, the extracts were assessed for phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity. Potent polyphenols were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antifungal mechanism of action was evaluated in silico. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains while all plant extracts showed antifungal activity against Fusarium solani. Rutin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified as common polyphenols. In silico studies showed that rutin displayed the greatest affinity with binding pocket of fungal 14-alpha demethylase and nucleoside diphosphokinase with the binding affinity (Kd, −9.4 and −8.9, respectively), as compared to terbinafine. Results indicated that Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum tamala exert their antifungal effect possibly due to kaempferol and rutin, respectively, or possibly by inhibition of nucleoside diphosphokinase (NDK) and 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51), while Amomum subulatum and Trigonella foenum graecum might exhibit antifungal potential due to quercetin. Overall, the study demonstrates that plant-derived products have a high potential to control fungal infections.

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Topics: Cinnamomum zeylanicum (58%), Cinnamomum tamala (53%), Kaempferol (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1978384
Abstract: One of the most significant challenges associated with postharvest apple deterioration is the blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum, which leads to considerable economic losses to apple production industries. Apple fruits are susceptible to mold infection owing to their high nutrient and water content, and current physical control methods can delay but cannot completely inhibit P. expansum growth. Biological control methods present promising alternatives; however, they are not always cost effective and have application restrictions. P. expansum infection not only enhances disease pathogenicity, but also inhibits the expression of host-related defense genes. The implementation of new ways to investigate and control P. expansum are expected with the advent of omics technology. Advances in these techniques, together with molecular biology approaches such as targeted gene deletion and whole genome sequencing, will lead to a better understanding of the P. expansum infectious machinery. Here, we review the progress of research on the blue mold disease caused by P. expansum in apples, including physiological and molecular infection mechanisms, as well as various methods to control this common plant pathogen.

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Topics: Penicillium expansum (73%), Blue mold (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26226819
11 Nov 2021-Molecules
Abstract: The greatest challenge for the avocado (Persea americana Miller) industry is to maintain the quality of the fruit to meet consumer requirements. Anthracnose is considered the most important disease in this industry, and it is caused by different species of the genus Colletotrichum, although other pathogens can be equally important. The defense mechanisms that fruit naturally uses can be triggered in response to the attack of pathogenic microorganisms and also by the application of exogenous elicitors in the form of GRAS compounds. The elicitors are recognized by receptors called PRRs, which are proteins located on the avocado fruit cell surface that have high affinity and specificity for PAMPs, MAMPs, and DAMPs. The activation of defense-signaling pathways depends on ethylene, salicylic, and jasmonic acids, and it occurs hours or days after PTI activation. These defense mechanisms aim to drive the pathogen to death. The application of essential oils, antagonists, volatile compounds, chitosan and silicon has been documented in vitro and on avocado fruit, showing some of them to have elicitor and fungicidal effects that are reflected in the postharvest quality of the fruit and a lower incidence of diseases. The main focus of these studies has been on anthracnose diseases. This review presents the most relevant advances in the use of natural compounds with antifungal and elicitor effects in plant tissues.

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Topics: Elicitor (58%), Persea (53%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.00018.2001
Abstract: At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents. At moderate concentrations, how...

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8,461 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2005.09.002
T.P. Tim Cushnie1, Andrew J. Lamb1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

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Topics: Antibacterial agent (59%), Galangin (55%), Myricetin (53%) ... read more

3,189 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00560-1
Eri M Govrin1, Alex Levine1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 2000-Current Biology
Abstract: Background: Plants have evolved efficient mechanisms to combat pathogen attack. One of the earliest responses to attempted pathogen attack is the generation of oxidative burst that can trigger hypersensitive cell death. This is called the hypersensitive response (HR) and is considered to be a major element of plant disease resistance. The HR is thought to deprive the pathogens of a supply of food and confine them to initial infection site. Necrotrophic pathogens, such as the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , however, can utilize dead tissue. Results: Inoculation of B. cinerea induced an oxidative burst and hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis . The degree of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum pathogenicity was directly dependent on the level of generation and accumulation of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Plant cells exhibited markers of HR death, such as nuclear condensation and induction of the HR-specific gene HSR203J . Growth of B. cinerea was suppressed in the HR-deficient mutant dnd1 , and enhanced by HR caused by simultaneous infection with an avirulent strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae . HR had an opposite (inhibitory) effect on a virulent (biotrophic) strain of P. syringae . Moreover, H 2 O 2 levels during HR correlated positively with B. cinerea growth but negatively with growth of virulent P. syringae . Conclusions: We show that, although hypersensitive cell death is efficient against biotrophic pathogens, it does not protect plants against infection by the necrotrophic pathogens B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum . By contrast, B. cinerea triggers HR, which facilitates its colonization of plants. Hence, these fungi can exploit a host defense mechanism for their pathogenicity.

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Topics: Hypersensitive response (64%), Botrytis cinerea (58%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (54%) ... read more

1,011 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.POSTHARVBIO.2003.11.005
Abstract: Chemical fungicides provide the primary means for controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruit and vegetables. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles—increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The ultimate aim of recent research in this area has been the development and evaluation of various alternative control strategies to reduce dependency on synthetic fungicides. Several non-chemical treatments have been proposed for fungal decay control. Although these approaches have been shown to reduce postharvest rots of fruit and vegetables, each has limitations that can affect their commercial applicability. When used as stand-alone treatments, none of the non-chemical control methods has been clearly shown to offer a consistently economic level of disease control that warrants acceptance as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Recently, the exploitation of natural products to control decay and prolong storage life of perishables has received more and more attention. Biologically active natural products have the potential to replace synthetic fungicides. This review deals with exploitation of some natural products such as flavour compounds, acetic acid, jasmonates, glucosinolates, propolis, fusapyrone and deoxyfusapyrone, chitosan, essential oils and plant extracts for the management of fungal rotting of fruit and vegetables, thereby prolonging shelf life.

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Topics: Fungicide (52%)

634 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2006.03.005
Jan A. L. van Kan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Necrotrophic plant pathogens have received an increasing amount of attention over the past decade. Initially considered to invade their hosts in a rather unsophisticated manner, necrotrophs are now known to use subtle mechanisms to subdue host plants. The gray mould pathogen Botrytis cinerea is one of the most comprehensively studied necrotrophic fungal plant pathogens. The genome sequences of two strains have been determined. Targeted mutagenesis studies are unraveling the roles played in the infection process by a variety of B. cinerea genes that are required for penetration, host cell killing, plant tissue decomposition or signaling. Our increasing understanding of the tools used by a necrotrophic fungal pathogen to invade plants will be instrumental to designing rational strategies for disease control.

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Topics: Botrytis cinerea (53%)

533 Citations


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