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Journal ArticleDOI

Security in a Communications Society: Opportunities and Challenges

01 Apr 2012-Connections: The Quarterly Journal (PfP Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes)-Vol. 11, Iss: 2, pp 53-66
TL;DR: The phenomena that fall under the rubric of "Web 2.0" have radically changed the characteristics of the objects of security as well as the problems facing security - starting from Twitter revolutions, going through the protests of "the indignant," and culminating in the key role of social media as tools of "soft power."
Abstract: Information can often provide a key power resource, and more people have access to more information than ever before. In this world, networks and connectedness become an important source of relevant power.3Joseph S. Nye, Jr.Power always depends on context.2 The year 2011 has made Joseph Nye's statement starkly visible concerning all actors in the realm of security policy. The Arab Spring uprisings (still ongoing in Syria) and the protests that have erupted in nations around the world of ineffective government policies regarding the global financial and economic crisis have categorically proven that political stability (security) cannot be considered and achieved only in the context of traditional institutions and norms of representative democracy, or through inspiring fear and beliefs in a closed society. These events have demonstrated new forms and scales of political activity, and have called for competent political participation. What unites them, in spite of their widespread geography, is that they were organized and conducted with the help of new communications technologies.The current context of security policy is the communications society. The phenomena that fall under the rubric of "Web 2.0" have radically changed the characteristics of the objects of security (individuals, society, state), as well as the problems facing security - starting from Twitter revolutions, going through the protests of "the indignant," and culminating in the key role of social media as tools of "soft power." This article is an attempt to assess and analyze the parameters of these changes as challenges and new opportunities for security systems in a communications society.The Communications SocietyUntil recently, we used to define the world that we live in as an "information society." But if we carefully analyze the trends of the past decade, we could argue that this statement does not reflect well enough the specifics of the present anymore. Although the quantity of accessible information continuously increases, today it is more appropriate to say that we are witnessing a revolution that provides new alternative instruments for communication. These communication technologies focus not on increasing the volume of accessible information, but on developing various innovative and effective forms of mass communication from central points to large numbers of people, and also on creating new modes of information exchange between individual actors. The phenomenon of "communication" is moving toward obtaining the status of the main explanatory principle in many of the social sciences.The evolution of the Internet at the beginning of the twenty-first century saw the development of a variety of technologies that combined to create what is known as Web 2.0. This stage in the Internet's evolution is characterized by social networks, social media, and user-generated content - by the granting of creative agency to individual users, not just traditional media outlets. A vital feature is the use of the Internet not only as a "communication medium" but also as a "platform."3 These platforms can be created and improved upon both by designers and users. One of the most significant outcomes of Web 2.0 is the creation of social ("new") media as a new means for online mass information, where every Internet user - even those without any special programming abilities - can take part in the process of creating, storing, and disseminating socially important information, addressed to a wide audience.4The widespread dissemination of these "new media" has turned them simply into "the media" for a large number of people. The following are considered the "traditional" media: printed material (newspapers, magazines, etc.), radio, television, cinema and video programs, and digital editions (so-called Web 1 .0) of newspapers, information, and news feeds. Although no official "scientific" definition exists yet, the notion of "new media" characterizes Internet-based (Web 2. …

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the analysis of cross impact between two of the big themes in the FOCUS project: "EU as a global actor based on the wider Petersberg Tasks" and "Critical infrastructure & supply chain protection".
Abstract: The paper presents main results of the analysis of cross impact between two of the ‘big themes’ in the FOCUS project: “EU as a global actor based on the wider Petersberg Tasks” and “Critical infrastructure & supply chain protection.” The cross impact was evaluated by experts from both EU and non-EU countries. For each theme they were asked to estimate significance and interrelation of trends, thus allowing the research team to identify centres of gravity within each theme. Then they estimated the pairwise linkage of trends from the two themes. The study resulted in identification of key linkages among trends, to be further explored in the analysis of respective contexts, mission roles, and security research scenarios. This practical test of the presented model—having relatively limited number of domains and trends—contributes to the transparency and illustrative power of FOCUS methodology and can be expanded in future studies.

1 citations

DOI
21 May 2023
TL;DR: In this paper , a cascaded machine learning model based Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack detection and classification approach is presented. And outstanding classification results on every attack: 97% on Flooding, and up to 100% on both Routing Loop and Traffic Diversion.
Abstract: Network-on-Chip (NoC) is becoming an increasingly common System-on-Chip (SoC) fabric architecture since it matches the characteristics of the SoC's shared storage and high-frequency communication. However, due to the rising utilization of NoC, a large number of adversaries are trying to inject Hardware Trojan (HT) into NoC to obtain profits. An increasing variety of NoC HTs is emerging and implemented, resulting in current detection methods becoming invalid. This paper presents a cascaded machine learning model based Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack detection and classification approach. An Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) model were employed in the framework, which has also been validated on our runtime mixed dataset consisting of normal and attacked data extracted from four traffic pattern cases. The proposed framework achieved an expected detection accuracy: more than 85% on detection in average. And outstanding classification results on every attack: 97% on Flooding, and up to 100% on both Routing Loop and Traffic Diversion.
References
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Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web 2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes.
Abstract: This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.

7,513 citations

Book
15 Oct 2002
TL;DR: From Tokyo to Helsinki, Manhattan to Manila, Howard Rheingold takes us on a journey around the world for a preview of the next techno-cultural shift-a shift he predicts will be as dramatic as the widespread adoption of the PC in the 1980s and the Internet in the 1990s.
Abstract: From the Publisher: How the convergence of mobile communications and computing is driving the next social revolution-transforming the ways in which people meet, mate, work, buy, sell, govern, and create. When Howard Rheingold sneaks off down an untrodden trail, everyone else follows. He is always onto something marvelous no one has seen before. An ever-considerate guide, he navigates this new world with ease, compassion, and grace, and gives you the inside story, with no punches pulled. Tech talk? Howard could get your mother to understand. From Tokyo to Helsinki, Manhattan to Manila, Howard Rheingold takes us on a journey around the world for a preview of the next techno-cultural shift-a shift he predicts will be as dramatic as the widespread adoption of the PC in the 1980s and the Internet in the 1990s. The coming wave, says Rheingold, is the result of super-efficient mobile communications-cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless-paging and Internet-access devices that will allow us to connect with anyone, anywhere, anytime. From the amusing ("Lovegetty" devices in Japan that light up when a person with the right date-potential characteristics appears in the vicinity) to the extraordinary (the overthrow of a repressive regime in the Philippines by political activists who mobilized by forwarding text messages via cell phones), Rheingold gives examples of the fundamentally new ways in which people are already engaging in group or collective action. He also considers the dark side of this phenomenon, such as the coordination of terrorist cells, threats to privacy, and the ability to incite violent behavior. Applying insights from sociology, artificial intelligence, engineering, and anthropology, Rheingold offers a penetrating perspective on the brave new convergence of pop culture, cutting-edge technology, and social activism. At the same time, he reminds us that, as with other technological revolutions, the real impact of mobile communications will come not from the technology itself but from how people use it, resist it, adapt to it, and ultimately use it to transform themselves, their communities, and their institutions. Author Biography: Howard Rheingold is one of the world's foremost authorities on the social implications of technology. Over the past twenty years he has traveled around the world, observing and writing about emerging trends in computing, communications, and culture. One of the creators and former founding executive editor of HotWired, he has served as editor of The Whole Earth Review, editor-in-chief of The Millennium Whole Earth Catalog, and on-line host for The Well. The author of several books, including The Virtual Community, Virtual Reality, and Tools for Thought, he lives in Mill Valley, California.

1,864 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The digital government or electronic government (e-government) has started as a new form of public organization that supports and redefines the existing and new information, communication and transaction-related interactions with stakeholders with the purpose of improving government performance and processes.
Abstract: The revolution in information and communication technologies (ICT) has been changing not only the daily lives of people but also the interactions between governments and citizens. The digital government or electronic government (e-government) has started as a new form of public organization that supports and redefines the existing and new information, communication and transaction-related interactions with stakeholders (e.g., citizens and businesses) through ICT, especially through the Internet and Web technologies, with the purpose of improving government performance and processes [1].

497 citations