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Journal ArticleDOI

See in 3D: state of the art of 3D display technologies

01 Dec 2016-Multimedia Tools and Applications (Springer US)-Vol. 75, Iss: 24, pp 17121-17155
TL;DR: The principles of current popular 3D display technologies, which are generally categorized into four categories: 3D movies, on-stage holograms, holographic projections and volumetric 3D displays, are introduced.
Abstract: With advances in lasers, optics, and electronics, many new 3D display technologies have been proposed with prototypes in research labs or have entered the marketplace. Although some of these technologies (such as Stereoscopy) are familiar to people, other technologies, such as holography, remain far-fetched to most. This survey introduces the principles of current popular 3D display technologies, which are generally categorized into four categories: 3D movies, on-stage holograms, holographic projections and volumetric 3D displays. Furthermore, the limitations of each of the aforementioned technologies are deeply analyzed, and comparisons of these technologies are provided. Moreover, we note appropriate application situations for the various technologies. Because computer-generated hologram (CGH) technologies are considered to be the next generation of 3D display technology and have become a dominant direction in 3D display technology development, we address the challenges that CGH is currently facing and provide an insightful analysis of solutions proposed in recent years. Finally, we study the current 3D display applications associated with the four categorized technology principles.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Dongkyung Nam1, Jin-Ho Lee1, Yang Ho Cho1, Young Ju Jeong1, Hyoseok Hwang1, Du-sik Park1 
14 Apr 2017
TL;DR: The developed design method is explained using a new pixel value assigning algorithm, called the light-field rendering, and vision-based parameter calibration methods for 3-D displays, and the blur effects caused by the depth and display characteristics are analyzed.
Abstract: Recent autostereoscopic 3-D (A3D) displays suffer from many limitations such as narrow viewing angle, low resolution, and shallow depth effects. As these limitations mainly originate from the insufficiency of pixel resources, it is not easy to obtain a feasible solution that can solve all the limitations simultaneously. In many cases, it will be better to find a good compromising design. Generally, the multiview display and the integral imaging display are the representative designs of A3D. However, as they are too canonical and lack flexibility in design, they tend to be a tradeoff. To address these design issues, we have analyzed the multiview display and the integral image display in a light-field coordinate and developed a 3-D display design framework in a light-field space. The developed framework does not use the “view” concept anymore. Instead, it considers the spatial distribution of rays of the 3-D display and provides more flexible and sophisticated design methods. In this paper, the developed design method is explained using a new pixel value assigning algorithm, called the light-field rendering, and vision-based parameter calibration methods for 3-D displays. We have also analyzed the blur effects caused by the depth and display characteristics. By implementing the proposed method, we have designed a 65-in 96-view display with a 4K panel. The developed prototype has showed almost seamless parallax with a high-resolution comparable to the conventional four to five views displays. This paper will be useful to readers interested in A3D displays, especially in the multiview and the integral imaging displays.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the state of the art in brain atlasing is provided, as it is already 20 years from the release of the first brain atlas, and the author's past and present efforts are summarised.
Abstract: We have recently witnessed an explosion of large-scale initiatives and projects addressing mapping, modeling, simulation and atlasing of the human brain, including the BRAIN Initiative, the Human B...

22 citations


Cites background from "See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..."

  • ...holographic to touchable holographic displays, especially in view of the fact that almost 50% of the human brain capability deals with processing of visual information.(124) Similarly, the virtual reality shift will be from conventional (with the mouse and keyboard) interaction to gestures to natural two-hand and to whole-body interaction with voice control and tactile feedback, supporting applications for dexterous and immersive virtual reality on multiple platforms ranging from head-mounted displays to CAVE-like environments....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present magnetic rendering, a haptic display method applying an electromagnet array to produce magnetic field in mid-air where the force field can be felt as magnetic repulsive force exerted on the hand through the attached magnet disks.
Abstract: We present magnetic rendering, a new haptic display method applying an electromagnet array to produce magnetic field in mid-air where the force field can be felt as magnetic repulsive force exerted on the hand through the attached magnet disks. The magnetic field is generated by a specifically designed electromagnet array driven by direct current. By attaching small magnet disks on the hand, the tactile sensation can be perceived by the user. This method can provide a strong tactile force and avoid cumbersome attachments with wires, and thus, it is suitable for a colocated visual and haptic display. In this paper, we introduce the detailed design of the electromagnet array for haptic rendering purposes, which is modeled and tested using finite-element method simulations. We characterize the model mathematically, and apply recursive least squares adaptive control algorithm for controlling the magnetic field. We evaluate the performance of our simulated model in terms of force strength, operation distance, and force stiffness. We then implement and test the control algorithm, which results in fast and accurate convergence. We conclude with simulations on a 15-by-15 model to generate a haptic human face, which results in a smooth force field and accurate force exertion on the control points.

21 citations


Cites methods from "See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..."

  • ...In this paper, we present a magnetic rendering system to render volumetric shapes [20], [21] by applying magnetic repelling force to produce tactile sensation in space....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A multiview holographic 3D display based on a phase-only blazed Fresnel-type diffractive optical element (FDOE) is proposed that can reconstruct converged views and virtual 3D scenes with an extended field of view (FOV) of 17 .

14 citations

Patent
24 Mar 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the color pixel group constituting one three-dimensional pixel is composed of 3M x N color pixels, namely, 3M color pixels in each horizontal row of one cylindrical lens, and N color pixel in each vertical column of one cylinderindrical lenses.
Abstract: [PROBLEMS] To solve color variation and intensity variation of a three-dimensional image. [MEANS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS] A three-dimensional display comprises a two-dimensional display and a renticular sheet. The two-dimensional display has color pixels composed of horizontal rows of pixels extending horizontally and vertical columns of pixels extending substantially perpendicularly to the horizontal direction. In the horizontal rows, red, green, and blue pixels are periodically arranged, and the colors of the pixels of each vertical column are the same. The renticular sheet has cylindrical lenses through which the color pixels are viewed and which are provided on the two- dimensional display and parallel extended. The center axis of each cylindrical lens is inclined at an angle Theta to the vertical columns of the two-dimensional display. The relation Theta=tan-1(3px/Npy) is satisfied where px is the pitch in the horizontal direction of the color pixels, py is the pitch in the vertical direction of the color pixels, the color pixel group constituting one three-dimensional pixel is composed of 3M x N color pixels, namely, 3M color pixels in each horizontal row of one cylindrical lens and N color pixels in each vertical column of one cylindrical lens.

13 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study’s findings can provide practical guidelines to steer partnership programs within the academic and clinical bodies, with the aim of providing a collaborative partnership approach to clinical education.
Abstract: The aim of our systematic review was to retrieve and integrate relevant evidence related to the process of formation and implementation of the academic–service partnership, with the aim of reformin...

41,134 citations


"See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Many ideas and possible applications have been proposed in numerous fields, including medicine, biology [6, 9, 18, 22, 31, 32, 42, 47, 52, 67, 79, 83, 90, 94], and entertainment....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1948-Nature
TL;DR: An improvement of the resolution by one decimal wotild require a correction of the objective to four decimals, a practically hopeless task.
Abstract: IT is known that the spherical aberration of electron lenses sets a limit to the resolving power of electron microscopes at about 5 A. Suggestions for the correction of objectives have been made ; but these are difficult in themselves, and the prospects of improvement are further aggravated by the fact that the resolution limit is proportional to the fourth root of the spherical aberration. Tnus an improvement of the resolution by one decimal wotild require a correction of the objective to four decimals, a practically hopeless task.

3,899 citations


"See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971 for his invention and refinement of the holographic method in 1947 [25–28] when he was attempting to improve his electron microscope by recording the diffraction of light sources....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that a coherent monochromatic wave can be used to reconstruct the original image of an object from its mirror image with respect to the coherent background.
Abstract: The subject of this paper is a new two-step method of optical imagery. In a first step the object is illuminated with a coherent monochromatic wave, and the diffraction pattern resulting from the interference of the coherent secondary wave issuing from the object with the strong, coherent background is recorded on a photographic plate. If the photographic plate, suitably processed, is replaced in the original position and illuminated with the coherent background alone, an image of the object will appear behind it, in the original position. It is shown that this process reconstructs the coherent secondary wave, together with an equally strong ‘twin wave’ which has the same amplitude, but opposite phase shifts relative to the background. The illuminating wave itself can be used for producing the coherent background. The simplest case is illumination by a point source. In this case the two twin waves are shown to correspond to two ‘twin objects’, one of which is the original, while the other is its mirror image with respect to the illuminating centre. A physical aperture can be used as a point source, or the image of an aperture produced by a condenser system . If this system has aberrations, such as astigmatism or spherical aberration, the twin image will be no longer sharp but will appear blurred, as if viewed through a system with twice the aberrations of the condenser. In either case the correct image of the object can be effectively isolated from its twin, and separately observed. Three-dimensional objects can be reconstructed, as well as two-dimensional. The wave used in the reconstruction need not be the original, it can be, for example, a light-optical imitation of the electron wave with which the diffraction diagram was taken. Thus it becomes possible to extend the idea of Sir Lawrence Bragg’s ‘X -ray microscope’ to arbitrary objects, and use the new method for improvements in electron microscopy. The apparatus will consist of two parts, an electronic device in which a diffraction pattern is taken with electrons diverging from a fine focus, and an optical synthetizer, which imitates the essential data of the electronic device on a much enlarged scale. The theory of the analysis-synthesis cycle is developed, with a discussion of the impurities arising in the reconstruction, and their avoidance. The limitations of the new method are due chiefly to the small intensities which are available in coherent beams, but it appears perfectly feasible to achieve a resolution limit of 1 A, ultimately perhaps even better.

1,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Adolf W. Lohmann1, D. P. Paris1
TL;DR: A theory for binary holograms is developed that is equivalent in terms of image reconstruction with ordinary holograms, proven theoretically and verified experimentally.
Abstract: When a hologram is desired from an object which does not exist physically but is known in mathematical terms, one can compute the hologram. An automatic plotter will make a drawing at a large scale which is then reduced photographically. Since the drawing can contain only black and white areas, we have developed a theory for binary holograms. They are equivalent in terms of image reconstruction with ordinary holograms. This has been proven theoretically and verified experimentally.

834 citations


"See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In 1967, Paris applied the fast Fourier transform algorithm to Lohmann’s hologram computation and reduced the time requirements [59]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications as discussed by the authors, and a review of a subset of the research and development activities in digital holographic microscopy techniques and applications is presented.
Abstract: Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. We present a review of a subset of the research and development activities in digital holography, with emphasis on microscopy techniques and applications. First, the basic results from the general theory of holography, based on the scalar diffraction theory, are summarized, and a general description of the digital holographic microscopy process is given, including quantitative phase microscopy. Several numerical diffraction methods are described and compared, and a number of representative configurations used in digital holography are described, including off-axis Fresnel, Fourier, image plane, in-line, Gabor, and phase-shifting digital holographies. Then we survey numerical techniques that give rise to unique capabilities of digital holography, including suppression of dc and twin image terms, pixel resolution control, optical phase unwrapping, aberration compensation, and others. A survey is also given of representative application areas, including biomedical microscopy, particle field holography, micrometrology, and holographic tomography, as well as some of the special techniques, such as holography of total internal reflection, optical scanning holography, digital interference holography, and heterodyne holography. The review is intended for students and new researchers interested in developing new techniques and exploring new applications of digital holography.

672 citations


"See in 3D: state of the art of 3D d..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) [48] is digital holography applied to microscopy....

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  • ...(b) DHM records 3D information from more than one viewing angle and calculates a complete image stack into the DHM system....

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  • ...(d) The low component cost and autofocusing capabilities of DHM enable the manufacture of DHM systems at a very low cost [68]....

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  • ...Compared to traditional microscopes, digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has several advantages, including providing quantitative analysis with living cells, a larger viewing angle, and higher clarity and contrast....

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  • ...(c) Because DHM systems do not have an image-forming lens, traditional optical aberrations do not apply to DHM [10, 86]....

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