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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11030469

Seed Treatment with α-Tocopherol Regulates Growth and Key Physio-Biochemical Attributes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Plants under Water Limited Regimes

04 Mar 2021-Agronomy (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 469
Abstract: The influence of seed priming with varying levels (50 and 100 mg L−1) of alpha-tocopherol (Toc) was investigated in carrot plants under water-deficit conditions. For this purpose, two cultivars of carrot, DC4 and DC90, were selected and subjected to well-watered (100% field capacity (FC)) and water-deficit stress (50% FC). After 21 days of water-deficit conditions, a significant suppression was observed in shoot and root fresh and dry weights, their lengths, chlorophyll a, b and total contents, and total soluble proteins (TSP). However, an up-regulatory effect of water stress was observed on the concentrations of glycinebetaine (GB), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA), total phenolics as well as the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes. Exogenous application of alpha-tocopherol was effective in reducing the accumulation of H2O2 and MDA contents and improving all growth attributes, contents of chlorophyll, proline, GB, AsA, total phenolics, TSP, and the activities of CAT and POD enzymes. Of both carrot cultivars, cv. DC4 had better performance in terms of growth attributes, whereas the response of the two cultivars was similar in all other attributes varying water regimes. Overall, it is suggested that seed priming with 100 mg L−1 Toc was effective in improving plant growth attributes, osmoprotectants and the oxidative defense system of carrot plants under water-deficit conditions.

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Topics: Daucus carota (54%), Ascorbic acid (54%), Shoot (52%) ... show more

10 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.03.045
Abstract: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a major cereal grain and is known as a halophyte (a halophyte is a salt-tolerant plant that grows in soil or waters of high salinity). We therefore conducted a pot experiment to explore plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange attributes, stomatal properties, oxidative stress and antioxidant response and their associated gene expression and absorption of ions in H. Vulgare. The soil used for this analysis was artificially spiked at different salinity concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) and different levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) were supplied to plants (0, 30 and 60 mM) shortly after germination of the seed. The results of the present study showed that plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange parameters, stomatal properties and ion uptake were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by salinity stress, whereas oxidative stress was induced in plants by generating the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells/tissues compared to plants grown in the control treatment. Initially, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and relative gene expression increased to a saline level of 100 mM, and then decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing the saline level (150 mM) in the soil compared to plants grown at 0 mM of salinity. We also elucidated that negative impact of salt stress in H. vulgare plants can overcome by the exogenous application of AsA, which not only increased morpho-physiological traits but decreased oxidative stress in the plants by increasing activities of enzymatic antioxidants. We have also explained the negative effect of salt stress on H. vulgare can decrease by exogenous application of AsA, which not only improved morpho-physiological characteristics, ions accumulation in the roots and shoots of the plants, but decreased oxidative stress in plants by increasing antioxidant compounds (enzymatic and non-enzymatic). Taken together, recognizing AsA's role in nutrient uptake introduces new possibilities for agricultural use of this compound and provides a valuable basis for improving plant tolerance and adaptability to potential salinity stress adjustment.

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Topics: Hordeum vulgare (64%), Halophyte (59%), Ascorbic acid (56%) ... show more

7 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11071404
13 Jul 2021-Agronomy
Abstract: Use of Plantago ovata Forsk leaf (also known as blond plantain or isabgol) extract is a novel approach for ameliorating water stress in various agronomic crops such as maize (Zea mays L.). To examine the potential roles of P. ovata extract (0, 20 and 40%) in increasing seed germination, plant growth, photosynthetic measurements, stomatal properties, oxidative stress and antioxidant response, ions uptake and the relationship between studied parameters, we investigated the impacts of its short-term seed priming on Z. mays L. elite cultivar “Cimmyt-Pak” under a control environment and a water deficit stress environment (induced by PEG). It was evident that water deficit stress conditions induced a negative impact on plant growth, stomatal properties and ion uptake in different organs of Z. mays. The decrease in growth-related attributes might be due to overproduction of oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiation, and electrolyte leakage (%), which was also overcome by the enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which increased under the water stress environment. However, seed priming with P. ovata extract positively increased germination rate and growth profile, and protected photosynthetic apparatus and stomatal properties by decreasing oxidative stress indicators and increasing activities of antioxidant compounds. Our results also depicted that the optimum concentration of P. ovata extract for Z. mays seedlings under water stress conditions was 20%, while a further increase in P. ovata extract (40%) induced a non-significant negative impact on growth and biomass of Z. mays seedling. In addition, the effect was more promising on Z. mays seedlings when grown under controlled conditions. Here, we concluded that the understanding of the role of seed priming with P. ovata extract in the increment of growth-related attributes, photosynthetic apparatus (Pn, Gs, Ts and Ci) and nutrient uptake (Ca2+, Fe2+, P and Mg2+) introduces new possibilities for their effective use in water deficit stress environments and shows a promising foundation for Z. mays tolerance against water deficit stress conditions.

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Topics: Plantago ovata (61%), Germination (51%), Seedling (50%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11071411
14 Jul 2021-Agronomy
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of different doses (100, 300, and 500 mJ) of low power He–Ne laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on seed germination and thermodynamics attributes and activities of potential germinating enzymes in relation with changes in seed metabolites. He–Ne laser seed irradiation increased the amylase (Amy), protease (Pro) and glucosidase (Gluco) activities, with a significant improvement in seed thermodynamics and seed germination attributes. A fast increase was found in free fatty acids (FFA), free amino acids (FAA), chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), total soluble sugars (TSS) and reducing sugars (RS) in laser treated seeds in parallel with fast decline in seed oil contents and total soluble proteins (TSP). Significant positive correlations were recorded in laser-induced enhanced seed energy levels, germination, activities of germination enzymes with levels of FAA, FFA, Chl, TSS and RS, but a negative correlation with the levels of TSP and oil. In conclusion, the seed treatment with 100 and 300 mJ He–Ne laser was more effective to improve the seed germination potential associated with an improvement in seed energy levels due to increased activities of germination enzymes due to the speedy breakdown of seed reserves to simple metabolites as building blocks.

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Topics: Seed treatment (59%), Germination (59%)

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10061078
Faisal Zulfiqar1, Jianjun Chen2, Patrick M. Finnegan3, Adnan Younis4  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
27 May 2021-
Abstract: Trehalose (Tre) and salicylic acid (SA) are increasingly used to mitigate drought stress in crop plants. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to study the influence of Tre and SA applied individually or in combination on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) exposed to drought stress. Basil plants were watered to 60% or 100% field capacity with or without treatment with 30 mM Tre and/or 1 mM SA. Drought negatively affected growth, physiological parameters, and antioxidant responses. Application of Tre and/or SA resulted in growth recovery, increased photosynthesis, and reduced oxidative stress. Application of Tre mitigated the detrimental effects of drought more than SA. Furthermore, co-application of Tre and SA largely eliminated the negative impact of drought by reducing oxidative stress through increased activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, as well as the accumulation of the protective osmolytes proline and glycine betaine. Combined Tre and SA application improved water use efficiency and reduced the amount of malondialdehyde in drought-stressed plants. Our results suggested that combined application of Tre and SA may trigger defense mechanisms of sweet basil to better mitigate oxidative stress induced by drought stress, thereby improving plant growth.

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3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11030551
14 Mar 2021-Agronomy
Abstract: The characterization of C. sativus ecotypes is of great interest for preserving them from a possible genetic erosion due to the decrease of European cultivation surface. In this study, we evaluated four ecotypes from Italy (Sardinia and Abruzzo), Spain (Castilla-La Mancha), and Greece (Kozani) in order to detect the existence of variability and promote the biodiversity of this crop. Thirty-one traits related to saffron flowering, flower morphology, production of spice and daughter corms, vegetative development (leaf and corm traits), and spice quality, were evaluated. In addition, a genetic analysis through three PCR-based approaches, SSRs, RAPD, and SRAP was assessed. Results highlighted a phenotypic variation among ecotypes during two consecutive years. All the studied parameters were influenced by the ecotype except for the stamen length, color coordinates of tepals, leaf length, and leaf number per plant. Sardinia had a longer flowering interval, earlier flowering, and higher spice yield and quality than the other corm origins. The maximum values of morphological traits, such as stigma length, dry weight of stigmas, tepals, flowers and leaves, leaf area, and daughter corm weight were observed in the Abruzzo ecotype. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation among ecotypes, in which Sardinia and Spain showed more similarities than Abruzzo and Kozani. Significant negative correlation was found between days to flower with stigma yield and quality. However, we could not find molecular markers discriminating among corm origins. In conclusion, this study suggests the importance of C. sativus ecotypes as precious source of biodiversity and bioactive compounds, and of their enhancement as fundamental prerequisite for a sustainable development strategy and as an agricultural diversification opportunity for growers.

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Topics: Ecotype (58%), Corm (53%), Crocus sativus (52%)

2 Citations


48 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
Marion M. Bradford1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.

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Topics: Bradford protein assay (59%), Lowry protein assay (55%), Spectrin binding (55%) ... show more

214,383 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1104/PP.24.1.1
Daniel I. Arnon1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1949-Plant Physiology
Abstract: The chloroplast, as the seat of chlorophyll pigments in plants, occupies a unique position in the economy of the green cell. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the reactions and properties of chloroplasts as a result of the work of Hill (11, 12) and Hill and Scarisbrick (13, 14) who demonstrated that the reaction characteristic of photosynthesis in green plants, the evolution of oxygen, occurs in appreciable quantities in isolated chloroplasts under the influence of light and in the presence of suitable oxidants (2, 7, 8, 26). In the course of an investigation of oxygen evolution by isolated chloroplasts it was deemed important to explore their enzymatic composition. Of special interest were considered enzymes capable of participating in oxidation-reduction reactions, and more particularly, those localized principally, if not entirely, in the chloroplasts. This paper presents evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis.

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Topics: Hill reaction (57%), Chloroplast membrane (56%), Chlorophyll (55%) ... show more

18,362 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00018060
L. S. Bates1, R. P. Waldren1, I. D. Teare1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 1973-Plant and Soil
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

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12,637 Citations

Abstract: The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of mature leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity are of three distinct types: osmotic stress tolerance, Na + or Cl − exclusion, and the tolerance of tissue to accumulated Na + or Cl − . Our understanding of the role of the HKT gene family in Na + exclusion from leaves is increasing, as is the understanding of the molecular bases for many other transport processes at the cellular level. However, we have a limited molecular understanding of the overall control of Na + accumulation and of osmotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. Molecular genetics and functional genomics provide a new opportunity to synthesize molecular and physiological knowledge to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food production and environmental sustainability.

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Topics: Osmotic shock (54%), Osmotic pressure (51%)

8,270 Citations

Book ChapterDOI: 10.1002/9780470110171.CH14
Britton Chance1, A.C. Maehly1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the assay of catalases and peroxidases are: (1) catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide; (2) method for crude cell extracts; (3) direct spectrophotometric assay of catalase and peroxidase in cells and tissues; and (4) peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products. Two methods are described for the catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide are: ultraviolet spectrophotometry and permanganate titration. Ultraviolet spectrophotometryis a method devised, on the basis of the absorption curves for peroxide solutions, for determining the activity of catalase by direct measurements of the decrease of light absorption in the region 230 to 250 mμ caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. In the case of method for crude cell extracts, oxygen evolution caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is measured with the conventional manometric technique. Peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products includes the guaiacol test and the pyrogallol test.

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Topics: Hydrogen peroxide (60%), Catalase (60%), Peroxidase (58%) ... show more

3,533 Citations