scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11661-021-06178-9

Selective Laser Melting for Joining Dissimilar Materials: Investigations of Interfacial Characteristics and In Situ Alloying

02 Mar 2021-Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy and Materials Science (Springer US)-Vol. 52, Iss: 4, pp 1540-1550
Abstract: Joining multi-materials with complex geometries is a promising method to achieve multi-functional components that overcome traditional manufacturing limitations. Selective laser melting (SLM), also known as laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that enables the production of complex geometries, but it typically operates using a single material and a substrate made of the same material. Here, we show that the SLM technique can be used to join dissimilar printed materials (pure Al, pure Cu, and 50 at. pct Al-50 at. pct Cu mixed powders, respectively) with a typical stainless steel (316L) substrate. We investigate the interfacial characteristics between dissimilar materials processed at various laser energy densities and the feasibility of in situ alloying during the SLM process. Moreover, we employ the finite element method (FEM) to visualize the melting behaviors of Al and Cu powders upon laser irradiation. Pure Al and Cu powders join the stainless steel with distinct characteristics through diffusion and melting. We also produce an Al-Cu alloy with uniformly distributed elements by the SLM processing of Al-Cu mixed powders. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of joining dissimilar materials and in situ alloying in the SLM process.

... read more

Topics: Selective laser melting (61%), Alloy (50%)
Citations
  More

6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.323.7325.1375/A
08 Dec 2001-BMJ
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

... read more

30,199 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11837-021-04670-6
Zhiying Liu1, Bei He2, Bei He3, Tianyi Lyu1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
20 Apr 2021-JOM
Abstract: Titanium alloys are expensive and difficult to process into large complex components for aerospace applications. Directed energy deposition (DED), one of the additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, offers a high deposition rate, being suitable for fabricating large metallic components. So far, most review articles on the AM of titanium discuss the popular powder bed fusion method with the emphasis on the “workhorse” titanium alloy—Ti-6Al-4V. There have been few review articles on the DED process of a broad range of titanium alloys—near-α, β, and other α + β alloys beyond Ti-6Al-4V. This article focuses on the processing–microstructure–property relationships in the DED-processed titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and beyond) with the following aspects: (1) microstructure evolution induced by solidification, thermal cycles, and post-processing heat treatment; (2) tensile properties of as-deposited and heat-treated titanium alloys; (3) defects, residual stresses, and fatigue properties; and (4) micro/nanomechanical properties. The article concludes with perspectives about future directions in this field.

... read more

Topics: Titanium alloy (62%), Titanium (58%)

9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JALLCOM.2021.159946
Haoxiu Chen1, Zhiying Liu1, Xu Cheng2, Yu Zou1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is a transformative technology to the aerospace industry. As one of the AM techniques, laser metal deposition (LMD) enables the fabrication of engine blades and a disk, as a single component, known as blisk. In this study, we use the LMD technique to fabricate a γ-TiAl/Ti2AlNb graded metallic alloy by depositing γ-TiAl powder on a Ti2AlNb alloy substrate. High-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-speed nanoindentation are employed to characterize the microstructure and mechanical properties of the transition zone from the Ti2AlNb substrate (disk) to the γ-TiAl alloy (blade). The results show that the transition zone includes three layers (I, II and III) with gradient compositions and phases: (I) mainly β/B2 matrix with randomly distributed α2 and γ phases, (II) (α2 + γ) lamella with γ and β/B2 phases, and (III) similar microstructure with Layer II but finer γ and β/B2 phases. The results of nanoindentation mapping show good correlations between the mechanical properties (nanohardness and elastic modulus) and microstructure in the transition zone. Attributing to the rule of mixtures, the nanohardness and elastic modulus gradually increase from the substrate Ti2AlNb to Layer I, and gradually decrease from Layer I to γ-TiAl. This work demonstrates that the microstructure and phase analysis in combination with high-speed nanoindentation offers a new opportunity to study graded materials made using LMD.

... read more

Topics: Microstructure (55%), Nanoindentation (55%), Elastic modulus (53%) ... show more

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40964-021-00205-2
M. Schneck1, M. Horn1, Matthias Schmitt1, Christian Seidel1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Aug 2021-
Abstract: In this review paper, the authors investigate the state of technology for hybrid- and multi-material (MM) manufacturing of metals utilizing additive manufacturing, in particular powder bed fusion processes. The study consists of three parts, covering the material combinations, the MM deposition devices, and the implications in the process chain. The material analysis is clustered into 2D- and 3D-MM approaches. Based on the reviewed literature, the most utilized material combination is steel-copper, followed by fusing dissimilar steels. Second, the MM deposition devices are categorized into holohedral, nozzle-based as well as masked deposition concepts, and compared in terms of powder deposition rate, resolution, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). As a third aspect, the implications in the process chain are investigated. Therefore, the design of MM parts and the data preparation for the production process are analyzed. Moreover, aspects for the reuse of powder and finalization of MM parts are discussed. Considering the design of MM parts, there are theoretical approaches, but specific parameter studies or use cases are not present in the literature. Principles for powder separation are identified for exemplary material combinations, but results for further finalization steps of MM parts have not been found. In conclusion, 3D-MM manufacturing has a MRL of 4–5, which indicates that the technology can be produced in a laboratory environment. According to this maturity, several aspects for serial MM parts need to be developed, but the potential of the technology has been demonstrated. Thus, the next important step is to identify lead applications, which benefit from MM manufacturing and hence foster the industrialization of these processes.

... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAJP.2021.100068
01 Nov 2021-
Abstract: Surface micro−structure for joining with thermoplastic parts was additively manufactured on an aluminum alloy (A5052) substrate by laser scanning on Al−Ti−C powder mixtures. The micro−structure consisted of particle−shaped protrusions with a few hundred micrometers. The effect of C content in Al−Ti−C powder mixtures on the micro−structure and constituent phases was investigated. The fraction of particle−shaped protrusion reached maximum when the C/Ti molar ratio was 0.8. Adhesiveness between the particle−shaped protrusions and A5052 substrate decreased drastically when the C/Ti molar ratio increased from 0.6 to 0.8. Changes in these structural factors were related to the formation of TiC and Al3Ti phases after the laser−irradiations. The A5052 substrate was joined with Polyamide−6 sheets via the micro−structure by hot−pressing. When the C/Ti molar ratio was 0.6, the joint strength reached maximum since both the fraction of particle−shaped protrusions and adhesiveness between particle−shaped protrusions and A5052 substrate were high. The constitute phases (TiC and Al3Ti phases) in the micro−structures were assessed by Scheil simulation for Al−Ti−C system to calculate the component partitioning and solidification path during solidification. These results were used to discuss the relation between the surface micro−structure and powder compositions.

... read more

1 Citations


References
  More

44 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.323.7325.1375/A
08 Dec 2001-BMJ
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

... read more

30,199 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11665-014-0958-Z
William E. Frazier1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

... read more

2,960 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PMATSCI.2017.10.001
Tarasankar Debroy1, Huiliang Wei1, J.S. Zuback1, T. Mukherjee1  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Since its inception, significant progress has been made in understanding additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the structure and properties of the fabricated metallic components. Because the field is rapidly evolving, a periodic critical assessment of our understanding is useful and this paper seeks to address this need. It covers the emerging research on AM of metallic materials and provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts. The uniqueness of this review includes substantive discussions on refractory alloys, precious metals and compositionally graded alloys, a succinct comparison of AM with welding and a critical examination of the printability of various engineering alloys based on experiments and theory. An assessment of the status of the field, the gaps in the scientific understanding and the research needs for the expansion of AM of metallic components are provided.

... read more

2,278 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PMATSCI.2008.03.002
Abstract: High-pressure torsion (HPT) refers to the processing of metals whereby samples are subjected to a compressive force and concurrent torsional straining. Although the fundamental principles of this procedure were first proposed more than 60 years ago, processing by HPT became of major importance only within the last 20 years when it was recognized that this metal forming process provides an opportunity for achieving exceptional grain refinement, often to the nanometer level, and exceptionally high strength. This review summarizes the background and basic principles of processing by HPT and then outlines the most significant recent developments reported for materials processed by HPT. It is demonstrated that HPT processing leads to an excellent value for the strength of the material, reasonable microstructural homogeneity if the processing is continued through a sufficient number of torsional revolutions and there is a potential for achieving a capability for various attractive features including superplastic forming and hydrogen storage. The review also describes very recent developments including the application of HPT processing to bulk and ring samples and the use of HPT for the consolidation of powders.

... read more

2,212 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMATPROTEC.2005.06.068
Abstract: Laser welding will be an important joining technique for magnesium alloys with their increasing applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries In this document the research and progress in laser welding of magnesium alloys are critically reviewed from different perspectives To date, two types of industrial lasers, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), have been used to investigate the weldability of magnesium alloys Some important laser processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed The microstructure and metallurgical defects encountered in laser welding of magnesium alloys, such as porosity, cracking, oxide inclusions and loss of alloying elements are described Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile and fatigue strength, and other important structural properties are discussed The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in laser welding of magnesium alloys and to provide a basis for follow-on research

... read more

Topics: Laser beam welding (68%), Magnesium alloy (67%), Welding (65%) ... show more

460 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20215
20011