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Journal ArticleDOI

Selenium and drug metabolism—III: Relation of glutathione-peroxidase and other hepatic enzyme modulations to dietary supplements

01 Jul 1985-Biochemical Pharmacology (Elsevier)-Vol. 34, Iss: 13, pp 2287-2290
TL;DR: Male mice fed a torula yeast-based diet containing different amounts of added selenium for a period of 4 months produced the multiple hepatic enzyme modulations which were previously reported, and changes in drug metabolism enzymes were observed with the high Se diets.
About: This article is published in Biochemical Pharmacology.The article was published on 1985-07-01. It has received 49 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Glutathione peroxidase & Selenium.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Howglutathione biosynthesis, glutathione peroxidases, glutATHione S-transferases and glutathion S-conjugate efflux pumps function in an integrated fashion to allow cellular adaption to oxidative stress is discussed.
Abstract: Increases in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequently referred to as oxidative stress, represents a potentially toxic insult which if not counteracted will lead to membrane dysfunction, DNA damage and inactivation of proteins. Chronic oxidative stress has numerous pathological consequences including cancer, arthritis and neurodegenerative disease. Glutathione-associated metabolism is a major mechanism for cellular protection against agents which generate oxidative stress. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the glutathione tripeptide is central to a complex multifaceted detoxification system, where there is substantial inter-dependence between separate component members. Glutathione participates in detoxification at several different levels, and may scavenge free radicals, reduce peroxides or be conjugated with electrophilic compounds. Thus, glutathione provides the cell with multiple defences not only against ROS but also against their toxic products. This article discusses how glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione S-conjugate efflux pumps function in an integrated fashion to allow cellular adaption to oxidative stress. Co-ordination of this response is achieved, at least in part, through the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) which is found in the promoters of many of the genes that are inducible by oxidative and chemical stress. Transcriptional activation through this enhancer appears to be mediated by basic leucine zipper transcription factors such as Nrf and small Maf proteins. The nature of the intracellular sensor(s) for ROS and thiol-active chemicals which induce genes through the ARE is described. Gene activation through the ARE appears to account for the enhanced antioxidant and detoxification capacity of normal cells effected by many cancer chemopreventive agents. In certain instances it may also account for acquired resistance of tumours to cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. It is therefore clear that determining the mechanisms involved in regulation of ARE-driven gene expression has enormous medical implications.

1,476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is clear that the selenoperoxidases are involved in cell antioxidant systems, however, they also have more subtle functions in ensuring the regulation and formation of arachadonic acid metabolites that are derived from hydroperoxide intermediates.
Abstract: There are several proteins in mammalian cells that can metabolize hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. These proteins include four selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases that are found in different cell fractions and tissues of the body. This review considers the structure and distribution of the selenoperoxidases and how this relates to their biological function. The functions of the selenoperoxidases were originally studied in systems where their activity was manipulated by changing dietary selenium levels. More recently, molecular techniques have allowed overexpression of selenoperoxidases in cell lines and animals. Additionally, cellular glutathione peroxidase knockout mice have been used to investigate the functions of this protein. From this work it is clear that the selenoperoxidases are involved in cell antioxidant systems. However, they also have more subtle functions in ensuring the regulation and formation of arachadonic acid metabolites that are derived from hydroperoxide intermediates. The range of biological processes, which are potentially dependent on optimal selenoperoxidase activity in mammals, emphasises the importance of achieving adequate selenium intake in the diet.

842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel chemopreventive mechanism is proposed involving Se catalysis of reversible cysteine/disulfide transformations that occur in a number of redox-regulated proteins, including transcription factors, which would allow normalization of critical cellular processes in the early stages of transformation.
Abstract: Numerous studies in animal models and more recent studies in humans have demonstrated cancer chemopreventive effects with Se. There is extensive evidence that monomethylated forms of Se are critical metabolites for chemopreventive effects of Se. Induction of apoptosis in transformed cells is an important chemopreventive mechanism. Apoptosis can be triggered by micromolar levels of monomethylated forms of Se independent of DNA damage and in cells having a null p53 phenotype. Cell cycle protein kinase cdk2 and protein kinase C are strongly inhibited by various forms of Se. Inhibitory mechanisms involving modification of cysteine residues in proteins by Se have been proposed that involve formation of Se adducts of the selenotrisulfide (S-Se-S) or selenenylsulfide (S-Se) type or catalysis of disulfide formation. Selenium may facilitate reactions of protein cysteine residues by the transient formation of more reactive S-Se intermediates. A novel chemopreventive mechanism is proposed involving Se catalysis of reversible cysteine/disulfide transformations that occur in a number of redox-regulated proteins, including transcription factors. A time-limited activation mechanism for such proteins, with deactivation facilitated by Se, would allow normalization of critical cellular processes in the early stages of transformation. There is uncertainty at the present time regarding the role of selenoproteins in chemoprevention model systems where supranutritional levels of Se are employed. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase is one selenoprotein that shows increased activity with Se supplementation in the nutritional to supranutritional range. Enhanced thioredoxin reduction could have beneficial effects in oxidative stress, but possible adverse effects are considered. Other functions of thioredoxin reductase may be relevant to cell signaling pathways. The functional status of the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system during in vivo chemoprevention with Se has not been established. Some in vitro studies have shown inhibitory effects of Se on the thioredoxin system correlated with growth inhibition by Se. A potential inactivating mechanism for thioredoxin reductase or other selenoenzymes involving formation of a stable diselenide form resistant to reduction is discussed. New aspects of Se biochemistry and possible functions of new selenoproteins in chemoprevention are described.

687 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms.
Abstract: Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork of poorly connected findings. The article, therefore, reviews principles of redox regulation with special emphasis on chemical feasibility, kinetic requirements, specificity, and physiological context, taking well investigated mammalian transcription factor systems, nuclear transcription factor of bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (NF-κB), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/Nrf2, as paradigms. Major conclusions are that (i) direct signaling by free radicals is restricted to O2•− and •NO and can be excluded for fast reacting radicals such as •OH, •OR, or Cl•; (ii) oxidant signals are H2O2, enzymatically generated lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite; (iii) free radical damage is sensed via generation of Michael acceptors; (iv) protein thiol oxidation/alkylation is the prominent mechanism to modulate function; (v) redox sensors must be thiol peroxidases by themselves or proteins with similarly reactive cysteine or selenocysteine (Sec) residues to kinetically compete with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)- and peroxiredoxin (Prx)-type peroxidases or glutathione-S-transferases, respectively, a postulate that still has to be verified for putative mammalian sensors. S-transferases and Prxs are considered for system complementation. The impact of NF-κB and Nrf2 on hormesis, management of inflammatory diseases, and cancer prevention is critically discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2335–2381.

494 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that GPX1 is expressed independently of GPX3 or GPX4 and represents approximately 60% of the total hepatic Se in Se-adequate mice.
Abstract: Selenium-dependent cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) knockout [GPX1(-)] mice were derived from 129/SVJ x C57BL/6 hybrid mice by microinjecting C57BL/6 blastocysts with recombinant embryonic stem cells carrying a target mutation in the GPX1 gene. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the effects of the GPX1 knockout on the susceptibility of mice to dietary vitamin E and Se deficiency and on the expression of the Se-dependent plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX3) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX4), and the Se-independent glutathione S-transferase (GST). Eleven GPX1(-) and 11 control mice (5 wk old, six males and five females) were fed a Se-deficient, Torula yeast basal diet (0.02 mg Se/kg, no supplemental vitamin E) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg (as Na2SeO3) for 13 wk. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effect of the GPX1 knockout on the total Se concentration in the liver of Se-adequate mice. Six GPX1(-) and four control mice (5 wk old, half males and females) were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg and 15 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg for 5 wk. There was no difference in body weight gain or apparent susceptibility to dietary vitamin E and Se deficiency between the GPX1(-) and control mice. Knockout of GPX1 resulted in almost complete abolishment of GPX1 activity in various tissues, but had no effect on the GPX3 or GPX4 mRNA level and activity or the GST activity in several tissues at either level of dietary Se. The liver total Se concentration in the Se-adequate GPX1(-) mice was only 42% of that in the controls (P < 0. 0001). These results indicate that GPX1 is expressed independently of GPX3 or GPX4 and represents approximately 60% of the total hepatic Se in Se-adequate mice.

157 citations

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TL;DR: The kinetics and tissue distribution of the microsomal heme oxygenase suggest that it is of major importance in the physiological degradation of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins to bile pigment.

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