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Open accessPosted Content

Self-supervised Pretraining of Visual Features in the Wild

Abstract: Recently, self-supervised learning methods like MoCo, SimCLR, BYOL and SwAV have reduced the gap with supervised methods. These results have been achieved in a control environment, that is the highly curated ImageNet dataset. However, the premise of self-supervised learning is that it can learn from any random image and from any unbounded dataset. In this work, we explore if self-supervision lives to its expectation by training large models on random, uncurated images with no supervision. Our final SElf-supERvised (SEER) model, a RegNetY with 1.3B parameters trained on 1B random images with 512 GPUs achieves 84.2% top-1 accuracy, surpassing the best self-supervised pretrained model by 1% and confirming that self-supervised learning works in a real world setting. Interestingly, we also observe that self-supervised models are good few-shot learners achieving 77.9% top-1 with access to only 10% of ImageNet. Code: this https URL

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41 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Mathilde Caron1, Hugo Touvron1, Hugo Touvron2, Ishan Misra1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In this paper, we question if self-supervised learning provides new properties to Vision Transformer (ViT) that stand out compared to convolutional networks (convnets). Beyond the fact that adapting self-supervised methods to this architecture works particularly well, we make the following observations: first, self-supervised ViT features contain explicit information about the semantic segmentation of an image, which does not emerge as clearly with supervised ViTs, nor with convnets. Second, these features are also excellent k-NN classifiers, reaching 78.3% top-1 on ImageNet with a small ViT. Our study also underlines the importance of momentum encoder, multi-crop training, and the use of small patches with ViTs. We implement our findings into a simple self-supervised method, called DINO, which we interpret as a form of self-distillation with no labels. We show the synergy between DINO and ViTs by achieving 80.1% top-1 on ImageNet in linear evaluation with ViT-Base.

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116 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TKDE.2021.3090866
Xiao Liu1, Fanjin Zhang1, Zhenyu Hou1, Zhaoyu Wang1  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
15 Jun 2020-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Deep supervised learning has achieved great success in the last decade. However, its deficiencies of dependence on manual labels and vulnerability to attacks have driven people to explore a better solution. As an alternative, self-supervised learning attracts many researchers for its soaring performance on representation learning in the last several years. Self-supervised representation learning leverages input data itself as supervision and benefits almost all types of downstream tasks. In this survey, we take a look into new self-supervised learning methods for representation in computer vision, natural language processing, and graph learning. We comprehensively review the existing empirical methods and summarize them into three main categories according to their objectives: generative, contrastive, and generative-contrastive (adversarial). We further investigate related theoretical analysis work to provide deeper thoughts on how self-supervised learning works. Finally, we briefly discuss open problems and future directions for self-supervised learning. An outline slide for the survey is provided.

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Topics: Feature learning (61%), Supervised learning (59%)

98 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Self-supervised pretraining has been shown to yield powerful representations for transfer learning. These performance gains come at a large computational cost however, with state-of-the-art methods requiring an order of magnitude more computation than supervised pretraining. We tackle this computational bottleneck by introducing a new self-supervised objective, contrastive detection, which tasks representations with identifying object-level features across augmentations. This objective extracts a rich learning signal per image, leading to state-of-the-art transfer accuracy on a variety of downstream tasks, while requiring up to 10x less pretraining. In particular, our strongest ImageNet-pretrained model performs on par with SEER, one of the largest self-supervised systems to date, which uses 1000x more pretraining data. Finally, our objective seamlessly handles pretraining on more complex images such as those in COCO, closing the gap with supervised transfer learning from COCO to PASCAL.

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Topics: Transfer of learning (52%)

11 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This paper shows that masked autoencoders (MAE) are scalable self-supervised learners for computer vision. Our MAE approach is simple: we mask random patches of the input image and reconstruct the missing pixels. It is based on two core designs. First, we develop an asymmetric encoder-decoder architecture, with an encoder that operates only on the visible subset of patches (without mask tokens), along with a lightweight decoder that reconstructs the original image from the latent representation and mask tokens. Second, we find that masking a high proportion of the input image, e.g., 75%, yields a nontrivial and meaningful self-supervisory task. Coupling these two designs enables us to train large models efficiently and effectively: we accelerate training (by 3x or more) and improve accuracy. Our scalable approach allows for learning high-capacity models that generalize well: e.g., a vanilla ViT-Huge model achieves the best accuracy (87.8%) among methods that use only ImageNet-1K data. Transfer performance in downstream tasks outperforms supervised pre-training and shows promising scaling behavior.

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Topics: Encoder (50%)

11 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Chunyuan Li1, Jianwei Yang1, Pengchuan Zhang1, Mei Gao1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This paper investigates two techniques for developing efficient self-supervised vision transformers (EsViT) for visual representation learning. First, we show through a comprehensive empirical study that multi-stage architectures with sparse self-attentions can significantly reduce modeling complexity but with a cost of losing the ability to capture fine-grained correspondences between image regions. Second, we propose a new pre-training task of region matching which allows the model to capture fine-grained region dependencies and as a result significantly improves the quality of the learned vision representations. Our results show that combining the two techniques, EsViT achieves 81.3% top-1 on the ImageNet linear probe evaluation, outperforming prior arts with around an order magnitude of higher throughput. When transferring to downstream linear classification tasks, EsViT outperforms its supervised counterpart on 17 out of 18 datasets. The code and models will be publicly available.

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Topics: Linear classifier (55%), Feature learning (55%)

9 Citations


53 results found

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11263-015-0816-Y
Olga Russakovsky1, Jia Deng2, Hao Su1, Jonathan Krause1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.

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25,260 Citations

Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10602-1_48
Tsung-Yi Lin1, Michael Maire2, Serge Belongie1, James Hays  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
06 Sep 2014-
Abstract: We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.

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Topics: Object detection (54%)

18,843 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11263-009-0275-4
Mark Everingham1, Luc Van Gool2, Christopher Williams3, John Winn4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) challenge is a benchmark in visual object category recognition and detection, providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures. Organised annually from 2005 to present, the challenge and its associated dataset has become accepted as the benchmark for object detection. This paper describes the dataset and evaluation procedure. We review the state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection, analyse whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images (e.g. the object or its context), and what the methods find easy or confuse. The paper concludes with lessons learnt in the three year history of the challenge, and proposes directions for future improvement and extension.

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11,545 Citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICCV.2017.322
20 Mar 2017-
Abstract: We present a conceptually simple, flexible, and general framework for object instance segmentation. Our approach efficiently detects objects in an image while simultaneously generating a high-quality segmentation mask for each instance. The method, called Mask R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN by adding a branch for predicting an object mask in parallel with the existing branch for bounding box recognition. Mask R-CNN is simple to train and adds only a small overhead to Faster R-CNN, running at 5 fps. Moreover, Mask R-CNN is easy to generalize to other tasks, e.g., allowing us to estimate human poses in the same framework. We show top results in all three tracks of the COCO suite of challenges, including instance segmentation, bounding-box object detection, and person keypoint detection. Without tricks, Mask R-CNN outperforms all existing, single-model entries on every task, including the COCO 2016 challenge winners. We hope our simple and effective approach will serve as a solid baseline and help ease future research in instance-level recognition. Code will be made available.

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Topics: Object detection (55%), Image segmentation (54%), Minimum bounding box (53%) ... show more

9,492 Citations

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