Abstract: A state-of-the-art review on the response control of structures mainly using the passive tuned mass damper(s) (TMD/s) is presented. The review essentially focuses on the response control of wind- and earthquake-excited structures and covers theoretical backgrounds of the TMD and research developments therein. To put the TMD within a proper frame of reference, the study begins with a qualitative description and comparison of passive control systems for protecting structures subjected to wind-imparted forces and forces induced due to earthquake ground motions. A detailed literature review of the TMD is then provided with reference to both, the theoretical and experimental researches. Specifically, the review focuses on descriptions of the dynamic behavior and distinguishing features of various systems, viz. single TMD (STMD), multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMDs), and spatially distributed MTMDs (d-MTMD) which have been theoretically developed and experimentally tested both at the component level and through small-scale structural models. The review clearly demonstrates that the TMDs have a potential for improving the wind and seismic behaviors of prototype civil structures. In addition, the review shows that the MTMDs and d-MTMDs are relatively more effective and robust, as reported. The paper shows the scope of future research in development of time and frequency domain analyses of structures installed with the d-MTMDs duly considering uncertainties in the structural parameters and forcing functions. In addition, the consideration of nonlinearity in structural material and geometry is recommended for assessment of the performance of the STMD, MTMDs, or d-MTMDs.