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Journal ArticleDOI

Semiconductor thin films by chemical bath deposition for solar energy related applications

30 Apr 1998-Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (Elsevier BV)-Vol. 52, Iss: 3, pp 313-344
TL;DR: In this article, the basic concepts underlying the chemical bath deposition technique and recipes developed in our laboratory during the past ten years for the deposition of good-quality thin films of CdS, CdSe, ZnS, PbSe, SnS, Bi2S3, BiSe3, SbS3 Sb2S2, CuS, CuSe, etc.
About: This article is published in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.The article was published on 1998-04-30 and is currently open access. It has received 345 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Chemical bath deposition & Carbon film.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors have described in detail, chemical bath deposition method of metal chalcogenide thin films, it is capable of yielding good quality thin films and their preparative parameters, structural, optical, electrical properties etc.

733 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a resonant optical filter design based on a modified, asymmetric metal was proposed to overcome the difficulties associated with the nanofabrication using a lithography-free approach.
Abstract: Nanostructured photonic materials enable control and manipulation of light at subwavelength scales and exhibit unique optical functionalities. In particular, plasmonic materials and metamaterials have been widely utilized to achieve spectral transmission, reflection, and absorption filters based on localized or delocalized resonances arising from the interaction of photons with nanostructured materials. Realization of visible-frequency, high-performance, large-area, optical filters based on nanoplasmonic materials is rather challenging due to nanofabrication related problems (cost, fabrication imperfection, surface roughness) and optical losses of metals. Here, we propose and demonstrate large-area perfect absorbers and transmission filters that overcome difficulties associated with the nanofabrication using a lithography-free approach. We also utilize and benefit from the optical losses in metals in our optical filter designs. Our resonant optical filter design is based on a modified, asymmetric metal–in...

398 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the synthesis and characterization of single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material.
Abstract: Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization of the single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material. We show that the coexistence of the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states would limit the performance of SnS in photovoltaic devices due to the valence band alignment of the respective phases and the “asymmetry” in the underlying point defect behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that Sn2S3, in addition to SnS, is a candidate material for low-cost thin-film solar cells.

369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a review of aqueous deposition routes for oxide materials for electronic applications, focusing on oxide materials with an emphasis on oxide material for semiconductor applications.
Abstract: Many techniques for the synthesis of ceramic thin films from aqueous solutions at low temperatures (25–100°C) have been reported. This paper reviews non-electrochemical, non-hydrothermal, low-temperature aqueous deposition routes, with an emphasis on oxide materials for electronic applications. Originally used for sulfide and selenide thin films, such techniques have also been applied to oxides since the 1970's. Films of single oxides (e.g., transition metal oxides, In2O3, SiO2, SnO2) and multicomponent films (doped ZnO, Cd2SnO4, ZrTiO4, ZrO2-Y2O3, Li-Co-O spinel, ferrites, perovskites) have been produced. The maximum thicknesses of the films obtained have ranged from 100 to 1000 nm, and deposition rates have ranged from 2 to 20,000 nm/h. Compared to vapor-deposition techniques, liquid-deposition routes offer lower capital equipment costs, lower processing temperatures, and flexibility in the choice of substrates with respect to topography and thermal stability. Compared to sol-gel techniques, the routes reviewed here offer lower processing temperatures, lower shrinkage, and (being based on aqueous precursors) lower costs and the potential for reduced environmental impact. This review emphasizes the influence of solution chemistry and process design on the microstructures and growth rates of the films. The current understanding of the mechanisms of film formation is presented, and the advantages and limitations of these techniques are discussed.

325 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 May 2018-Joule
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conduct a systematic analysis of Sb 2 S 3 -based photovoltaic devices, highlighting major advancements and most prominent limitations of this technology and provide a roadmap for further Sb2 S 3 technology development.

325 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1957
TL;DR: In this paper, hazard analysis information for nearly 13,000 common industrial and laboratory materials is provided in a single source and hazard analysis is performed for each of these materials using hazard analysis tools.
Abstract: The book provides, in a single source, hazard-analysis information for nearly 13,000 common industrial and laboratory materials. New sections have been added to this edition to refiect the increased interest in pollution and health hazards. For public, academic and special libraries. -- AATA

1,441 citations

Book
31 Jul 1983
TL;DR: In this paper, the basic physical processes in solar cell materials are discussed, and the properties of thin films for solar cells are discussed. And the authors propose a novel concept in the design of high efficiency solar cells.
Abstract: Why Thin Film Solar Cells?- Basic Physical Processes in Solar Cell Materials- Photovoltaic Behavior of Junctions- Photovoltaic Measurements, Junction Analysis, and Material Characterization- Thin Film Deposition Techniques- Properties of Thin Films for Solar Cells- Cu2S Based Solar Cells- Polycrystalline Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells- Emerging Solar Cells- Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells- Photoelectrochemical Cells- Novel Concepts in Design of High-Efficiency Solar Cells

674 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Structural studies of the as-deposited layers showed them to be composed of microcrystalline, cubic CdSe, and electron microscopy resolved them into individual crystallites of typically 40\char21{}80-A\r{} diameter, depending on deposition temperature, the first example reported of a three-dimensional quantum-size effect in a film.
Abstract: Optical band gaps, ${E}_{g}$, up to 0.5 eV higher than in single-crystal samples, are observed for chemically deposited films of CdSe and explained in terms of a quantum-size effect, whereby the electrons are localized in individual crystallites. The increase in ${E}_{g}$ depends strongly on deposition temperature, with the greatest increase obtained at the lowest temperature. Annealing at temperatures above the deposition temperature causes a decrease in ${E}_{g}$; this decrease is stronger at higher annealing temperature. Structural studies of the as-deposited layers showed them to be composed of microcrystalline, cubic CdSe, and electron microscopy resolved them into individual crystallites of typically 40--80-A\r{} diameter, depending on deposition temperature. This is the first example reported of a three-dimensional quantum-size effect in a film.

283 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new room temperature chemical deposition technique has been developed to deposit semiconducting antimony trisulphide thin films on conducting and ordinary glass substrates, which is based on aqueous ammonia bath containing potassium antimonyl tartarate (PAT), triethanolamine (TEA), and thioacetamide (TAM).

190 citations