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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21051779

Sensitivity, Noise and Resolution in a BEOL-Modified Foundry-Made ISFET with Miniaturized Reference Electrode for Wearable Point-of-Care Applications.

04 Mar 2021-Sensors (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 21, Iss: 5, pp 1779
Abstract: Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) form a high sensitivity and scalable class of sensors, compatible with advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Despite many previous demonstrations about their merits as low-power integrated sensors, very little is known about their noise characterization when being operated in a liquid gate configuration. The noise characteristics in various regimes of their operation are important to select the most suitable conditions for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and power consumption. This work reports systematic DC, transient, and noise characterizations and models of a back-end of line (BEOL)-modified foundry-made ISFET used as pH sensor. The aim is to determine the sensor sensitivity and resolution to pH changes and to calibrate numerical and lumped element models, capable of supporting the interpretation of the experimental findings. The experimental sensitivity is approximately 40 mV/pH with a normalized resolution of 5 mpH per µm2, in agreement with the literature state of the art. Differences in the drain current noise spectra between the ISFET and MOSFET configurations of the same device at low currents (weak inversion) suggest that the chemical noise produced by the random binding/unbinding of the H+ ions on the sensor surface is likely the dominant noise contribution in this regime. In contrast, at high currents (strong inversion), the two configurations provide similar drain noise levels suggesting that the noise originates in the underlying FET rather than in the sensing region.

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Topics: Noise (electronics) (62%), ISFET (58%), CMOS (51%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ELSA.202100147
Soumendu Sinha1, Soumendu Sinha2, Tapas Pal1Institutions (2)
03 Oct 2021-
Topics: ISFET (55%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/COATINGS11080929
03 Aug 2021-THE Coatings
Abstract: In this study, the In0.9Ga0.1O sensing membrane were deposited by using the RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature and combined with commercial MOSFETs as the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensors. The sensing performance of the In0.9Ga0.1O EGFET pH sensors were measured and analyzed in the pH value of range between 2 to 12. In the saturation region, the pH current sensitivity calculated from the linear relationship between the IDS and pH value was approximately 56.64 μA/pH corresponding to the linearity of 97.8%. In the linear region, the pH voltage sensitivity exhibited high sensitivity and linearity of 43.7 mV/pH and 96.3%, respectively. The In0.9Ga0.1O EGFET pH sensors were successfully fabricated and exhibited great linearity. The analyzed results indicated that the In0.9Ga0.1O was a robust material as a promising sensing membrane and effectively used for pH sensing detection application.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3094206
Abstract: The ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) is a type of electrochemical sensor with a wide range of applications. They offer advantages of being compatible with standard CMOS technology, a miniaturised form-factor, robustness, scalability and low power requirements to name a few. There are now many architectures and design strategies to construct ISFET-based systems in CMOS, and the appropriate choice of these depends heavily on the specifications of the intended application. This tutorial aims to give a designer the knowledge needed to make the best decisions for the required specifications by providing a background in theory and an overview of design trade-offs and existing approaches. Example designs which maximise performance in particular applications are discussed and practical considerations for simulation, layout and implementation are presented.

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Topics: ISFET (55%)

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/EUROSOI-ULIS53016.2021.9560696
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: In this work, we exploit the general-purpose solver COMSOL, equipped with electrolyte and semiconductor physics modules, to implement a versatile model of potentiometric chemical sensors including arbitrarily complex surface reactions at the oxide/electrolyte interface with examples on 2D devicelevel simulations of an ISFET. Firstly, Multiphysics simulations of V TH sensitivity to pH sensing are compared with analyses based on semiconductor TCAD. Then, more complex Na+ sensing experiments are examined and numerical simulations are compared against 1D electrochemical models.

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Topics: Multiphysics (56%), ISFET (54%), Semiconductor device modeling (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MI12070762
Saurabh Tomar1, Charlotte Lasne1, Sylvain Barraud2, Thomas Ernst2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
28 Jun 2021-Micromachines
Abstract: This paper reports a novel miniaturized pseudo reference electrode (RE) design for biasing Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs). It eliminates the need for post-CMOS processing and can scale up in numbers with the CMOS scaling. The presented design employs silane-mediated transfer of patterned gold electrode lines onto PDMS microfluidics such that the gold conformally coats the inside of microfluidic channel. Access to this electrode network is made possible by using “through-PDMS-vias” (TPV), which consist of high metal-coated SU-8 pillars manufactured by a novel process that employs a patterned positive resist layer as SU-8 adhesion depressor. When integrated with pneumatic valves, TPV and pseudo-RE network were able to bias 1.5 nanoliters (nL) of isolated electrolyte volumes. We present a detailed characterization of our pseudo-RE design demonstrating ISFET operation and its DC characterization. The stability of pseudo-RE is investigated by measuring open circuit potential (OCP) against a commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

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Topics: Reference electrode (59%), ISFET (57%), Microfluidics (53%)

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47 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05498
01 Feb 2007-Nature
Abstract: Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to act as highly sensitive sensors for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, without the need for a label on the pathogen. Practical miniature sensors would have applications in diagnostics, homeland security and basic research. Current technologies have not been widely adopted for various reasons, including the difficulty of integrating nanoscale devices into practical sensors. Now a team spanning five departments at Yale has developed a new approach to the problem. In a state-of-the-art (CMOS-compatible) system they create miniature, ultra-sensitive sensors that can detect specific unlabelled antibodies at concentrations below 100 femtomolar and are able to monitor the cellular immune response in 'real-time'. A new approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor compatible technology is reported, and demonstrates the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to function as highly sensitive and selective sensors for the label-free detection of low concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. Successful solution-phase nanowire sensing has been demonstrated for ions3, small molecules4, proteins5,6, DNA7 and viruses8; however, ‘bottom-up’ nanowires (or similarly configured carbon nanotubes11) used for these demonstrations require hybrid fabrication schemes12,13, which result in severe integration issues that have hindered widespread application. Alternative ‘top-down’ fabrication methods of nanowire-like devices9,10,14,15,16,17 produce disappointing performance because of process-induced material and device degradation. Here we report an approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor compatible technology and hence demonstrate the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. This approach eliminates the need for hybrid methods and enables system-scale integration of these sensors with signal processing and information systems. Additionally, the ability to monitor antibody binding and sense the cellular immune response in real time with readily available technology should facilitate widespread diagnostic applications.

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1,305 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/F19747001807
Abstract: A site-binding model of the oxide/aqueous electrolyte interface is introduced, in which it is proposed that the adsorbed counter ions form interfacial ion pairs with discrete charged surface groups. This model is used to calculate theoretical surface charge densities of the potential-determining (H+/OH–) ions and the potential at the Outer Helmholtz Plane, which are shown to be consistent with experimental data for oxides. An explanation is provided for the difference between silica and most other oxides in terms of the dissociation constants of the surface hydroxyl groups.

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Topics: Surface charge (62%), Surface conductivity (59%), Oxide (55%) ... read more

1,164 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PSSA.2211240225
Gerard Ghibaudo1, O. Roux1, Ch. Nguyen-Duc1, Francis Balestra1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: An improved analysis of low frequency trapping noise in a MOS device is proposed. This analysis takes into account the supplementary fluctuations of the mobility induced by those of the interface charge. It enables an adequate description of the gate voltage dependence of the input equivalent gate voltage noise to be obtained in various actual situations. The outputs given by the Hooge mobility fluctuation model are also presented and discussed with respect to those obtained by the carrier number fluctuation model. In particular, the impact of the channel length or channel width, and the model type on the input gate voltage and drain current noise characteristics is studied and compared to typical experimental data. Finally, a procedure for the diagnosis of the low frequency noise sources in a MOS transistor is proposed.

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Topics: Noise (electronics) (63%), Flicker noise (62%), Field-effect transistor (57%) ... read more

601 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0250-6874(84)80004-9
Agner Fog1, Richard P. Buck2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Limitations on the response of electronically-conducting oxides as pH sensors are demonstrated. PtO2, IrO2, RuO2, OsO2, Ta2O5 and TiO2 showed near-Nernstian behavior in the pH range 2–12 in air-saturated solutions. Interferences from selected reducing and oxidizing agents and from some complexing anions were measured and catalogued. No interference from monovalent cations (Group IA) was observed. Several reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed.

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Topics: Oxidizing agent (53%), Reaction mechanism (50%)

330 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/NL1020975
11 Aug 2010-Nano Letters
Abstract: We demonstrate a new protein detection methodology based upon frequency domain electrical measurement using silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) biosensors. The power spectral density of voltage from a current-biased SiNW FET shows 1/f-dependence in frequency domain for measurements of antibody functionalized SiNW devices in buffer solution or in the presence of protein not specific to the antibody receptor. In the presence of protein (antigen) recognized specifically by the antibody-functionalized SiNW FET, the frequency spectrum exhibits a Lorentzian shape with a characteristic frequency of several kilohertz. Frequency and conventional time domain measurements carried out with the same device as a function of antigen concentration show more than 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity in the frequency domain data. These concentration-dependent results together with studies of antibody receptor density effect further address possible origins of the Lorentzian frequency spectrum. Our resu...

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195 Citations


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