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Book ChapterDOI

Sensory Data Gathering for Road Traffic Monitoring: Energy Efficiency, Reliability, and Fault Tolerance

01 Jan 2015-pp 89-112

TL;DR: In this Chapter, a novel tree-based data gathering scheme has been proposed, exploiting the strip-like structure of the road network, and an efficient scheduling mechanism is implemented to assure both the coverage and the critical power savings of the sensor nodes.

AbstractVehicular traffic monitoring and control using through road sensor network is challenging due to a continuous data streaming over the resource constrained sensor devices. The delay sensitivity and reliability of the large volume of application data as well as the scarcity of sensor resources demand efficient designing of data collection protocol. In this Chapter, a novel tree-based data gathering scheme has been proposed, exploiting the strip-like structure of the road network. An efficient scheduling mechanism is implemented to assure both the coverage and the critical power savings of the sensor nodes. The network connectivity is guaranteed throughout by the proposed tree maintenance module that handles the dynamics of the network as a result of sensor node joining and leaving events. An application message controller has been designed that works cooperatively with the tree management module, and handles continuous streaming of the application data to ensure no loss or redundancy in data delivery. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using the simulation results and compared with other approaches for large data collection in sensor network.

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References
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Book
12 Aug 2005
Abstract: Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of this technique is to control the topology of the graph representing the communication links between network nodes with the purpose of maintaining some global graph property (e.g., connectivity), while reducing energy consumption and/or interference that are strictly related to the nodes' transmitting range. In this article, we state several problems related to topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, and we survey state-of-the-art solutions which have been proposed to tackle them. We also outline several directions for further research which we hope will motivate researchers to undertake additional studies in this field.

1,358 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
05 Nov 2003
TL;DR: The design and analysis of novel protocols that can dynamically configure a network to achieve guaranteed degrees of Coverage Configuration Protocol (CCP) and integrate SPAN to provide both coverage and connectivity guarantees are presented.
Abstract: An effective approach for energy conservation in wireless sensor networks is scheduling sleep intervals for extraneous nodes, while the remaining nodes stay active to provide continuous service. For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes must maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, the network must be able to configure itself to any feasible degrees of coverage and connectivity in order to support different applications and environments with diverse requirements. This paper presents the design and analysis of novel protocols that can dynamically configure a network to achieve guaranteed degrees of coverage and connectivity. This work differs from existing connectivity or coverage maintenance protocols in several key ways: 1) We present a Coverage Configuration Protocol (CCP) that can provide different degrees of coverage requested by applications. This flexibility allows the network to self-configure for a wide range of applications and (possibly dynamic) environments. 2) We provide a geometric analysis of the relationship between coverage and connectivity. This analysis yields key insights for treating coverage and connectivity in a unified framework: this is in sharp contrast to several existing approaches that address the two problems in isolation. 3) Finally, we integrate CCP with SPAN to provide both coverage and connectivity guarantees. We demonstrate the capability of our protocols to provide guaranteed coverage and connectivity configurations, through both geometric analysis and extensive simulations.

1,342 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: A realistic power consumption model of wireless communication subsystems typically used in many sensor network node devices is presented and it is shown that whenever single hop routing is possible it is almost always more power efficient than multi-hop routing.
Abstract: A realistic power consumption model of wireless communication subsystems typically used in many sensor network node devices is presented. Simple power consumption models for major components are individually identified, and the effective transmission range of a sensor node is modeled by the output power of the transmitting power amplifier, sensitivity of the receiving low noise amplifier, and RF environment. Using this basic model, conditions for minimum sensor network power consumption are derived for communication of sensor data from a source device to a destination node. Power consumption model parameters are extracted for two types of wireless sensor nodes that are widely used and commercially available. For typical hardware configurations and RF environments, it is shown that whenever single hop routing is possible it is almost always more power efficient than multi-hop routing. Further consideration of communication protocol overhead also shows that single hop routing will be more power efficient compared to multi-hop routing under realistic circumstances. This power consumption model can be used to guide design choices at many different layers of the design space including, topology design, node placement, energy efficient routing schemes, power management and the hardware design of future wireless sensor network devices

473 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The coverage problem is classified from different angles, the evaluation metrics of coverage control algorithms are described, the relationship between coverage and connectivity is analyzed, typical simulation tools are compared, and research challenges and existing problems in this area are discussed.
Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed of a group of small power-constrained nodes with functions of sensing and communication, which can be scattered over a vast region for the purpose of detecting or monitoring some special events. The first challenge encountered in WSNs is how to cover a monitoring region perfectly. Coverage and connectivity are two of the most fundamental issues in WSNs, which have a great impact on the performance of WSNs. Optimized deployment strategy, sleep scheduling mechanism, and coverage radius cannot only reduce cost, but also extend the network lifetime. In this paper, we classify the coverage problem from different angles, describe the evaluation metrics of coverage control algorithms, analyze the relationship between coverage and connectivity, compare typical simulation tools, and discuss research challenges and existing problems in this area.

467 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2006
TL;DR: This paper proposes MMSN, which takes advantage of multi-frequency availability while, at the same time, takes into account the restrictions in wireless sensor networks, and achieves increased energy efficiency when multiple physical frequencies are available.
Abstract: Multi-frequency media access control has been well understood in general wireless ad hoc networks, while in wireless sensor networks, researchers still focus on single frequency solutions. In wireless sensor networks, each device is typically equipped with a single radio transceiver and applications adopt much smaller packet sizes compared to those in general wireless ad hoc networks. Hence, the multi-frequency MAC protocols proposed for general wireless ad hoc networks are not suitable for wireless sensor network applications, which we further demonstrate through our simulation experiments. In this paper, we propose MMSN, which takes advantage of multi-frequency availability while, at the same time, takes into account the restrictions in wireless sensor networks. In MMSN, four frequency assignment options are provided to meet different application requirements. A scalable media access is designed with efficient broadcast support. Also, an optimal non-uniform backoff algorithm is derived and its lightweight approximation is implemented in MMSN, which significantly reduces congestion in the time synchronized media access design. Through extensive experiments, MMSN exhibits prominent ability to utilize parallel transmission among neighboring nodes. It also achieves increased energy efficiency when multiple physical frequencies are available.

391 citations