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Journal ArticleDOI

Sentiment analysis

01 Dec 2014-Vol. 68, pp 26-38
TL;DR: This paper addresses the classifier selection problem by proposing a greedy approach that evaluates the contribution of each model with respect to the ensemble, and addresses the noise sensitivity related to language ambiguity to provide a more accurate prediction of polarity.
Abstract: The huge amount of textual data on the Web has grown in the last few years rapidly creating unique contents of massive dimension. In a decision making context, one of the most relevant tasks is polarity classification of a text source, which is usually performed through supervised learning methods. Most of the existing approaches select the best classification model leading to over-confident decisions that do not take into account the inherent uncertainty of the natural language. In this paper, we pursue the paradigm of ensemble learning to reduce the noise sensitivity related to language ambiguity and therefore to provide a more accurate prediction of polarity. The proposed ensemble method is based on Bayesian Model Averaging, where both uncertainty and reliability of each single model are taken into account. We address the classifier selection problem by proposing a greedy approach that evaluates the contribution of each model with respect to the ensemble. Experimental results on gold standard datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms both traditional classification and ensemble methods. A novel ensemble learning methodology is proposed for polarity classification task.A selection strategy is studied to reduce the search space of candidate ensembles.The proposed model has been shown to be effective and efficient in several domains.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning and investigates the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL), and outlines a few important applications of UZ methods.
Abstract: Uncertainty quantification (UQ) plays a pivotal role in reduction of uncertainties during both optimization and decision making processes. It can be applied to solve a variety of real-world applications in science and engineering. Bayesian approximation and ensemble learning techniques are two most widely-used UQ methods in the literature. In this regard, researchers have proposed different UQ methods and examined their performance in a variety of applications such as computer vision (e.g., self-driving cars and object detection), image processing (e.g., image restoration), medical image analysis (e.g., medical image classification and segmentation), natural language processing (e.g., text classification, social media texts and recidivism risk-scoring), bioinformatics, etc. This study reviews recent advances in UQ methods used in deep learning. Moreover, we also investigate the application of these methods in reinforcement learning (RL). Then, we outline a few important applications of UQ methods. Finally, we briefly highlight the fundamental research challenges faced by UQ methods and discuss the future research directions in this field.

809 citations


Cites methods from "Sentiment analysis"

  • ...[210] utilized the ensemble learning approach to mitigate the noise sensitivity related...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Challenges and possible research directions for each mainstream approach of ensemble learning are presented and an extra introduction is given for the combination of ensemblelearning with other machine learning hot spots such as deep learning, reinforcement learning, etc.
Abstract: Despite significant successes achieved in knowledge discovery, traditional machine learning methods may fail to obtain satisfactory performances when dealing with complex data, such as imbalanced, high-dimensional, noisy data, etc. The reason behind is that it is difficult for these methods to capture multiple characteristics and underlying structure of data. In this context, it becomes an important topic in the data mining field that how to effectively construct an efficient knowledge discovery and mining model. Ensemble learning, as one research hot spot, aims to integrate data fusion, data modeling, and data mining into a unified framework. Specifically, ensemble learning firstly extracts a set of features with a variety of transformations. Based on these learned features, multiple learning algorithms are utilized to produce weak predictive results. Finally, ensemble learning fuses the informative knowledge from the above results obtained to achieve knowledge discovery and better predictive performance via voting schemes in an adaptive way. In this paper, we review the research progress of the mainstream approaches of ensemble learning and classify them based on different characteristics. In addition, we present challenges and possible research directions for each mainstream approach of ensemble learning, and we also give an extra introduction for the combination of ensemble learning with other machine learning hot spots such as deep learning, reinforcement learning, etc.

649 citations


Cites methods from "Sentiment analysis"

  • ...Besides, ensemble classification methods can also be adopted for social applications such as noise differentiation [89], customer relationship management [90], sentiment analysis [91], etc....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The empirical analysis indicates that the utilization of keyword-based representation of text documents in conjunction with ensemble learning can enhance the predictive performance and scalability ofText classification schemes, which is of practical importance in the application fields of text classification.
Abstract: Text classification is a domain with high dimensional feature space.Extracting the keywords as the features can be extremely useful in text classification.An empirical analysis of five statistical keyword extraction methods.A comprehensive analysis of classifier and keyword extraction ensembles.For ACM collection, a classification accuracy of 93.80% with Bagging ensemble of Random Forest. Automatic keyword extraction is an important research direction in text mining, natural language processing and information retrieval. Keyword extraction enables us to represent text documents in a condensed way. The compact representation of documents can be helpful in several applications, such as automatic indexing, automatic summarization, automatic classification, clustering and filtering. For instance, text classification is a domain with high dimensional feature space challenge. Hence, extracting the most important/relevant words about the content of the document and using these keywords as the features can be extremely useful. In this regard, this study examines the predictive performance of five statistical keyword extraction methods (most frequent measure based keyword extraction, term frequency-inverse sentence frequency based keyword extraction, co-occurrence statistical information based keyword extraction, eccentricity-based keyword extraction and TextRank algorithm) on classification algorithms and ensemble methods for scientific text document classification (categorization). In the study, a comprehensive study of comparing base learning algorithms (Naive Bayes, support vector machines, logistic regression and Random Forest) with five widely utilized ensemble methods (AdaBoost, Bagging, Dagging, Random Subspace and Majority Voting) is conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical analysis, which evaluates the effectiveness of statistical keyword extraction methods in conjunction with ensemble learning algorithms. The classification schemes are compared in terms of classification accuracy, F-measure and area under curve values. To validate the empirical analysis, two-way ANOVA test is employed. The experimental analysis indicates that Bagging ensemble of Random Forest with the most-frequent based keyword extraction method yields promising results for text classification. For ACM document collection, the highest average predictive performance (93.80%) is obtained with the utilization of the most frequent based keyword extraction method with Bagging ensemble of Random Forest algorithm. In general, Bagging and Random Subspace ensembles of Random Forest yield promising results. The empirical analysis indicates that the utilization of keyword-based representation of text documents in conjunction with ensemble learning can enhance the predictive performance and scalability of text classification schemes, which is of practical importance in the application fields of text classification.

445 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper develops a deep learning based sentiment classifier using a word embeddings model and a linear machine learning algorithm and proposes two ensemble techniques which aggregate this baseline classifier with other surface classifiers widely used in Sentiment Analysis.
Abstract: A taxonomy that classifies ensemble models in the literature is presented.Surface and deep features integration is explored to improve classification.Several ensembles of classifiers and features are proposed and evaluated.Performance of the proposed models is evaluated on several sentiment datasets. Deep learning techniques for Sentiment Analysis have become very popular. They provide automatic feature extraction and both richer representation capabilities and better performance than traditional feature based techniques (i.e., surface methods). Traditional surface approaches are based on complex manually extracted features, and this extraction process is a fundamental question in feature driven methods. These long-established approaches can yield strong baselines, and their predictive capabilities can be used in conjunction with the arising deep learning methods. In this paper we seek to improve the performance of deep learning techniques integrating them with traditional surface approaches based on manually extracted features. The contributions of this paper are sixfold. First, we develop a deep learning based sentiment classifier using a word embeddings model and a linear machine learning algorithm. This classifier serves as a baseline to compare to subsequent results. Second, we propose two ensemble techniques which aggregate our baseline classifier with other surface classifiers widely used in Sentiment Analysis. Third, we also propose two models for combining both surface and deep features to merge information from several sources. Fourth, we introduce a taxonomy for classifying the different models found in the literature, as well as the ones we propose. Fifth, we conduct several experiments to compare the performance of these models with the deep learning baseline. For this, we use seven public datasets that were extracted from the microblogging and movie reviews domain. Finally, as a result, a statistical study confirms that the performance of these proposed models surpasses that of our original baseline on F1-Score.

424 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental analysis of classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, software defect prediction, credit risk modeling, spam filtering, and semantic mapping, suggests that the proposed ensemble method can predict better than conventional ensemble learning methods such as AdaBoost, bagging, random subspace, and majority voting.
Abstract: Typically performed by supervised machine learning algorithms, sentiment analysis is highly useful for extracting subjective information from text documents online. Most approaches that use ensemble learning paradigms toward sentiment analysis involve feature engineering in order to enhance the predictive performance. In response, we sought to develop a paradigm of a multiobjective, optimization-based weighted voting scheme to assign appropriate weight values to classifiers and each output class based on the predictive performance of classification algorithms, all to enhance the predictive performance of sentiment classification. The proposed ensemble method is based on static classifier selection involving majority voting error and forward search, as well as a multiobjective differential evolution algorithm. Based on the static classifier selection scheme, our proposed ensemble method incorporates Bayesian logistic regression, naive Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and support vector machines as base learners, whose performance in terms of precision and recall values determines weight adjustment. Our experimental analysis of classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, software defect prediction, credit risk modeling, spam filtering, and semantic mapping, suggests that the proposed classification scheme can predict better than conventional ensemble learning methods such as AdaBoost, bagging, random subspace, and majority voting. Of all datasets examined, the laptop dataset showed the best classification accuracy (98.86%).

272 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High generalization ability of support-vector networks utilizing polynomial input transformations is demonstrated and the performance of the support- vector network is compared to various classical learning algorithms that all took part in a benchmark study of Optical Character Recognition.
Abstract: The support-vector network is a new learning machine for two-group classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are non-linearly mapped to a very high-dimension feature space. In this feature space a linear decision surface is constructed. Special properties of the decision surface ensures high generalization ability of the learning machine. The idea behind the support-vector network was previously implemented for the restricted case where the training data can be separated without errors. We here extend this result to non-separable training data. High generalization ability of support-vector networks utilizing polynomial input transformations is demonstrated. We also compare the performance of the support-vector network to various classical learning algorithms that all took part in a benchmark study of Optical Character Recognition.

37,861 citations

Proceedings Article
28 Jun 2001
TL;DR: This work presents iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compares the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and natural-language data.
Abstract: We present conditional random fields , a framework for building probabilistic models to segment and label sequence data. Conditional random fields offer several advantages over hidden Markov models and stochastic grammars for such tasks, including the ability to relax strong independence assumptions made in those models. Conditional random fields also avoid a fundamental limitation of maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) and other discriminative Markov models based on directed graphical models, which can be biased towards states with few successor states. We present iterative parameter estimation algorithms for conditional random fields and compare the performance of the resulting models to HMMs and MEMMs on synthetic and natural-language data.

13,190 citations


"Sentiment analysis" refers background in this paper

  • ...Then, riS is recomputed on the ensemble {S\CRF}, highlighting ME as the classifier with the lowest contribution....

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  • ...Starting from the initial ensemble S = {DIC, NB, ME, SVM, CRF}, the classifiers are sorted with respect to their contribution by computing Eq....

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  • ...16, where the outperforming ensemble obtained by BMA comprises DIC, SVM and CRF....

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  • ...For ME and CRF, the base classifiers perform better than Bagging....

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  • ...Starting from the initial set S = {DIC, NB, ME, SVM, CRF}, the contribution riS is computed for each classifier....

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Book
08 Jul 2008
TL;DR: This survey covers techniques and approaches that promise to directly enable opinion-oriented information-seeking systems and focuses on methods that seek to address the new challenges raised by sentiment-aware applications, as compared to those that are already present in more traditional fact-based analysis.
Abstract: An important part of our information-gathering behavior has always been to find out what other people think. With the growing availability and popularity of opinion-rich resources such as online review sites and personal blogs, new opportunities and challenges arise as people now can, and do, actively use information technologies to seek out and understand the opinions of others. The sudden eruption of activity in the area of opinion mining and sentiment analysis, which deals with the computational treatment of opinion, sentiment, and subjectivity in text, has thus occurred at least in part as a direct response to the surge of interest in new systems that deal directly with opinions as a first-class object. This survey covers techniques and approaches that promise to directly enable opinion-oriented information-seeking systems. Our focus is on methods that seek to address the new challenges raised by sentiment-aware applications, as compared to those that are already present in more traditional fact-based analysis. We include material on summarization of evaluative text and on broader issues regarding privacy, manipulation, and economic impact that the development of opinion-oriented information-access services gives rise to. To facilitate future work, a discussion of available resources, benchmark datasets, and evaluation campaigns is also provided.

7,452 citations


"Sentiment analysis" refers background in this paper

  • ...Many machine learning approaches have been investigated for sentiment classification purposes [12,4]....

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  • ...Sentiment analysis (SA) addresses polarity classification, the task aimed at classifying texts as positive, negative or neutral, at different levels: document [4], sentence [5,6] and feature/aspect [7]....

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  • ...Concerning sentiment analysis, [4] pointed out that the overall sentiment of a textmay not usually be expressed bymultiple occurrences of the same terms....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Aug 2004
TL;DR: This research aims to mine and to summarize all the customer reviews of a product, and proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks.
Abstract: Merchants selling products on the Web often ask their customers to review the products that they have purchased and the associated services. As e-commerce is becoming more and more popular, the number of customer reviews that a product receives grows rapidly. For a popular product, the number of reviews can be in hundreds or even thousands. This makes it difficult for a potential customer to read them to make an informed decision on whether to purchase the product. It also makes it difficult for the manufacturer of the product to keep track and to manage customer opinions. For the manufacturer, there are additional difficulties because many merchant sites may sell the same product and the manufacturer normally produces many kinds of products. In this research, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer reviews of a product. This summarization task is different from traditional text summarization because we only mine the features of the product on which the customers have expressed their opinions and whether the opinions are positive or negative. We do not summarize the reviews by selecting a subset or rewrite some of the original sentences from the reviews to capture the main points as in the classic text summarization. Our task is performed in three steps: (1) mining product features that have been commented on by customers; (2) identifying opinion sentences in each review and deciding whether each opinion sentence is positive or negative; (3) summarizing the results. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using reviews of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

7,330 citations


"Sentiment analysis" refers background in this paper

  • ...[19], Naïve Bayes (NB) [20], Support Vector Machines (SVM) [21], Maximum Entropy (ME) [22], and Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [23]....

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