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Journal Article
TL;DR: The Social Psychology of Groups as discussed by the authors is a seminal work in the field of family studies, where the authors introduced, defined, and illustrated basic concepts in an effort to explain the simplest of social phenomena, the two-person relationship.
Abstract: The Social Psychology of Groups. J. W Thibaut & H. H. Kelley. New York: alley, 1959. The team of Thibaut and Kelley goes back to 1946 when, after serving in different units of the armed services psychology program, the authors joined the Research Center for Group Dynamics, first at M.LT and then at the University of Michigan. Their continued association eventuated in appointments as fellows at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, 19561957. It is during these years that their collaboration resulted in the publication of The Social Psychology of Groups. The book was designed to "bring order and coherence to present-day research in interpersonal relations and group functioning." To accomplish this aim, the authors introduced, defined, and illustrated basic concepts in an effort to explain the simplest of social phenomena, the two-person relationship. These basic principles and concepts were then employed to illuminate larger problems and more complex social relationships and to examine the significance of such concepts as roles, norm, power, group cohesiveness, and status. The lasting legacy of this book is derived from the fact that the concepts and principles discussed therein serve as a foundation for one of the dominant conceptual frameworks in the field of family studies today-the social exchange framework. Specifically, much of our contemporary thinking about the process of interpersonal attraction and about how individuals evaluate their close relationships has been influenced by the theory and concepts introduced in The Social Psychology of Groups. Today, as a result of Thibaut and Kelley, we think of interpersonal attraction as resulting from the unique valence of driving and restraining forces, rewards and costs, subjectively thought to be available from a specific relationship and its competing alternatives. We understand, as well, that relationships are evaluated through complex and subjectively based comparative processes. As a result, when we think about assessing the degree to which individuals are satisfied with their relationships, we take into consideration the fact that individuals differ in terms of the importance they attribute to different aspects of a relationship (e.g., financial security, sexual fulfillment, companionship). We also take into consideration the fact that individuals differ in terms of the levels of rewards and costs that they believe are realistically obtainable and deserved from a relationship. In addition, as a result of Thibaut and Kelley's theoretical focus on the concept of dependence and the interrelationship between attraction and dependence, there has evolved within the field of family studies a deeper appreciation for the complexities and variability found within relationships. Individuals are dependent on their relationships, according to Thibaut and Kelley, when the outcomes derived from the existing relationship exceed those perceived to be available in competing alternatives. Individuals who are highly dependent on their relationships are less likely to act to end their relationships. This dependence and the stability it engenders may or may not be voluntary, depending on the degree to which individuals are attracted to and satisfied with their relationships. When individuals are both attracted to and dependent on their relationships, they can be thought of as voluntarily participating in their relationship. That is, they are likely to commit themselves to the partner and relationship and actively work for its continuance. Thibaut and Kelley termed those relationships characterized by low levels of satisfaction and high levels of dependence "nonvoluntary relationships. …

1,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book is altogether unlike any other sociological treatise on the family, but neither is it in any sense a popular, practical manual for the guidance of youth in pursuit of marital bliss.
Abstract: This book is altogether unlike any other sociological treatise on the family. There are two generally recognized types of books on marriage and the family. One, theoretical in nature, deals with the family as a social institution. The other deals with the problems of courtship, marriage and parenthood—more or less as a manual for youths in contemporary society. The book at hand does not structure the family as a social institution, but neither is it in any sense a popular, practical manual for the guidance of youth in pursuit of marital bliss!

501 citations

22 Sep 2016
TL;DR: This intervention addresses individual factors by emphasizing the importance of retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence; behavioral factors related to HIV care and adherence by promoting self-efficacy, goal setting, and problem solving; and socialenvironmental factors by promoting social support and trusting relationships with peer navigators and clinicians.
Abstract: Brief Description LINK LA (Linking Inmates to Care in Los Angeles) is a 12-session, 24-week peer-navigation intervention for people with HIV who are scheduled to be released from jail. LINK LA addresses individual factors by emphasizing the importance of retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence; behavioral factors related to HIV care and adherence by promoting self-efficacy, goal setting, and problem solving; and socialenvironmental factors by promoting social support and trusting relationships with peer navigators and clinicians. The intervention also teaches skills to overcome social stigma and discrimination, and facilitates access to care through appointment scheduling, reminders, transportation assistance, and meeting competing subsistence needs. Lay peer navigators are trained to act as role models to assist participants through each stage of the HIV continuum of care (e.g., linkage or re-engagement, retention, and antiretroviral adherence). Prior to the participants’ release from jail, peer navigators meet with participants in a private conference room for 1-2 hours to deliver intervention content. After release, navigators meet with participants in private community settings and provide counseling on retention and adherence behaviors while accompanying participants to 2 HIV care appointments up to 24 weeks after release.

75 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A nivel mundial, las ITS ocupan el segundo lugar por orden de importancia en la morbilidad general de las mujeres entre 15 y 44 años.
Abstract: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) constituyen una epidemia en la mayor parte de los países del mundo. Las y los adolescentes y jóvenes constituyen la población más vulnerable para padecer y transmitir las ITS. A nivel mundial, las ITS ocupan el segundo lugar por orden de importancia en la morbilidad general de las mujeres entre 15 y 44 años. S egún la OMS en el año 2016, más de 1 millón de personas contraen una ITS cada día(1). Unos 357 millones de personas contraen al año alguna de las 4 ITS siguientes: clamydias, gonorrea, sífilis o tricomoniasis. Se estima que 500 millones de personas son portadoras del virus herpes 2 causantes de úlceras genitales. Alrededor de 290 millones de mujeres están infectadas con el virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Las ITS pueden tener consecuencias graves y secuelas a largo plazo para quien las padece y para su descendencia.

40 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An issue concerning the criteria for tic disorders is highlighted, and how this might affect classification of dyskinesias in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Abstract: Given the recent attention to movement abnormalities in psychosis spectrum disorders (e.g., prodromal/high-risk syndromes, schizophrenia) (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), and an ongoing discussion pertaining to revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) for the upcoming 5th edition, we would like to take this opportunity to highlight an issue concerning the criteria for tic disorders, and how this might affect classification of dyskinesias in psychotic spectrum disorders. Rapid, non-rhythmic, abnormal movements can appear in psychosis spectrum disorders, as well as in a host of commonly co-occurring conditions, including Tourette’s Syndrome and Transient Tic Disorder (Kerbeshian et al., 2009). Confusion can arise when it becomes necessary to determine whether an observed movement (e.g., a sudden head jerk) represents a spontaneous dyskinesia (i.e., spontaneous transient chorea, athetosis, dystonia, ballismus involving muscle groups of the arms, legs, trunk, face, and/or neck) or a tic (i.e., stereotypic or patterned movements defined by the relationship to voluntary movement, acute and chronic time course, and sensory urges). Indeed, dyskinetic movements such as dystonia (i.e., sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions) closely resemble tics in a patterned appearance, and may only be visually discernable by attending to timing differences (Gilbert, 2006). When turning to the current DSM-IV TR for clarification, the description reads: “Tic Disorders must be distinguished from other types of abnormal movements that may accompany general medical conditions (e.g., Huntington’s disease, stroke, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Wilson’s disease, Sydenham’s chorea, multiple sclerosis, postviral encephalitis, head injury) and from abnormal movements that are due to the direct effects of a substance (e.g., a neuroleptic medication)”. However, as it is written, it is unclear if psychosis falls under one such exclusionary medical disorder. The “direct effects of a substance” criteria, referencing neuroleptic medications, further contributes to the uncertainty around this issue. As a result, ruling-out or differentiating tics in psychosis spectrum disorders is at best, a murky endeavor. Historically, the advent of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s has contributed to the confusion about movement signs in psychiatric populations. Because neuroleptic medications produce characteristic movement disorder in some patients (i.e. extrapyramidal side effects), drug-induced movement disturbances have been the focus of research attention in psychotic disorders. However, accumulating data have documented that spontaneous dyskinesias, including choreoathetodic movements, can occur in medication naive adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), as well as healthy first-degree relatives of chronically ill schizophrenia patients (McCreadie et al., 2003). Taken together, this suggests that movement abnormalities may reflect pathogenic processes underlying some psychotic disorders (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009). More specifically, because spontaneous hyperkinetic movements are believed to reflect abnormal striatal dopamine activity (DeLong and Wichmann, 2007), and dysfunction in this same circuit is also proposed to contribute to psychosis, it is possible that spontaneous dyskinesias serve as an outward manifestation of circuit dysfunction underlying some schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms (Walker, 1994). Further, because these movements precede the clinical onset of psychotic symptoms, sometimes occurring in early childhood (Walker, 1994), and may steadily increase during adolescence among populations at high-risk for schizophrenia (Mittal et al., 2008), observable dyskinesias could reflect a susceptibility that later interacts with environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, in the genesis of psychosis. In adolescents who meet criteria for a prodromal syndrome (i.e., the period preceding formal onset of psychotic disorders characterized by subtle attenuated positive symptoms coupled with a decline in functioning), there is sometimes a history of childhood conditions which are also characterized by suppressible tics or tic like movements (Niendam et al., 2009). On the other hand, differentiating between tics and dyskinesias has also complicated research on childhood disorders such as Tourette syndrome (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998; Gilbert, 2006). We propose consideration of more explicit and operationalized criteria for differentiating tics and dyskinesias, based on empirically derived understanding of neural mechanisms. Further, revisions of the DSM should allow for the possibility that movement abnormalities might reflect neuropathologic processes underlying the etiology of psychosis for a subgroup of patients. Psychotic disorders might also be included among the medical disorders that are considered a rule-out for tics. Related to this, the reliability of movement assessment needs to be improved, and this may require more training for mental health professionals in movement symptoms. Although standardized assessment of movement and neurological abnormalities is common in research settings, it has been proposed that an examination of neuromotor signs should figure in the assessment of any patient, and be as much a part of the patient assessment as the mental state examination (Picchioni and Dazzan, 2009). To this end it is important for researchers and clinicians to be aware of differentiating characteristics for these two classes of abnormal movement. For example, tics tend to be more complex than myoclonic twitches, and less flowing than choreoathetodic movements (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998). Patients with tics often describe a sensory premonition or urge to perform a tic, and the ability to postpone tics at the cost of rising inner tension (Gilbert, 2006). For example, one study showed that patients with tic disorders could accurately distinguish tics from other movement abnormalities based on the subjective experience of some voluntary control of tics (Lang, 1991). Another differentiating factor derives from the relationship of the movement in question to other voluntary movements. Tics in one body area rarely occur during purposeful and voluntary movements in that same body area whereas dyskinesia are often exacerbated by voluntary movement (Gilbert, 2006). Finally, it is noteworthy that tics wax and wane in frequency and intensity and migrate in location over time, often becoming more complex and peaking between the ages of 9 and 14 years (Gilbert, 2006). In the case of dyskinesias among youth at-risk for psychosis, there is evidence that the movements tend to increase in severity and frequency as the individual approaches the mean age of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Mittal et al., 2008). As revisions to the DSM are currently underway in preparation for the new edition (DSM V), we encourage greater attention to the important, though often subtle, distinctions among subtypes of movement abnormalities and their association with psychiatric syndromes.

67,017 citations

Book
01 Jun 1975

36,032 citations


"Sexualidad y relaciones contemporán..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Modelo de la Acción Razonada: Esta perspectiva parte de la noción de un ser humano capaz de procesar la información a su disposición y emplearla para configurar una intención de ejecutar una conducta específica (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; 1980, 1975) ....

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  • ...Modelo de Información-Motivación-Habilidades: Perspectiva que incluye construcciones sociales y psicológicas relevantes para la predicción de comportamientos de salud (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Bandura, 1989)....

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  • ...Por lo que esta intención constituye una variable clave para la predicción de una conducta y es determinada por los siguientes componentes (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975): Componente personal-actitudinal: Implica la postura aprendida del sujeto (favorable o desfavorable) frente a una conducta propia y…...

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Book
17 Mar 1980
TL;DR: In this paper, the author explains "theory and reasoned action" model and then applies the model to various cases in attitude courses, such as self-defense and self-care.
Abstract: Core text in attitude courses. Explains "theory and reasoned action" model and then applies the model to various cases.

26,683 citations


"Sexualidad y relaciones contemporán..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Modelo de la Acción Razonada: Esta perspectiva parte de la noción de un ser humano capaz de procesar la información a su disposición y emplearla para configurar una intención de ejecutar una conducta específica (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; 1980, 1975) ....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an integrative theoretical framework to explain and predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment, including enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources.

16,833 citations


"Sexualidad y relaciones contemporán..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…el comportamiento está determinado por la interacción recíproca y sistemática entre los siguientes componentes (Bandura, Freeman y Lightsey, 1999; Bandura, 1990; 1989; 1977; Bandura & National Inst of Mental Health, NIMH, 1986; Bandura & Walters, 1963): Componente cognitivo: Se refiere a la…...

    [...]

  • ...…1999; Bandura, 1990; 1989; 1977; Bandura & National Inst of Mental Health, NIMH, 1986; Bandura & Walters, 1963): Componente cognitivo: Se refiere a la evaluación que la persona hace de sus competencias personales para desempeñar una tarea, alcanzar una meta o superar un obstáculo (Bandura, 1977)....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1985
TL;DR: There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951), and human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans.
Abstract: There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951). Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano. Highly developed skills of this kind typically no longer require conscious formulation of a behavioral plan. Nevertheless, at least in general outline, we are normally well aware of the actions required to attain a certain goal. Consider such a relatively routine behavior as typing a letter. When setting this activity as a goal, we anticipate the need to locate a typewriter, insert a sheet of paper, adjust the margins, formulate words and sentences, strike the appropriate keys, and so forth. Some parts of the plan are more routine, and require less conscious thought than others, but without an explicit or implicit plan to guide the required sequence of acts, no letter would get typed.

16,172 citations


"Sexualidad y relaciones contemporán..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…Planeado: Constituye la re-evaluación del modelo de acción razonada; al cual le anexa la noción de “Control del comportamiento percibido”, para hacer referencia a aquella capacidad percibida del sujeto para realizar un comportamiento y su control de una situación (Ajzen, 2011; 1991; 1985)....

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