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Journal ArticleDOI

Shape modeling with front propagation: a level set approach

TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a shape model based on the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to shape modeling, which retains some of the attractive features of existing methods and overcomes some of their limitations.
Abstract: Shape modeling is an important constituent of computer vision as well as computer graphics research. Shape models aid the tasks of object representation and recognition. This paper presents a new approach to shape modeling which retains some of the attractive features of existing methods and overcomes some of their limitations. The authors' techniques can be applied to model arbitrarily complex shapes, which include shapes with significant protrusions, and to situations where no a priori assumption about the object's topology is made. A single instance of the authors' model, when presented with an image having more than one object of interest, has the ability to split freely to represent each object. This method is based on the ideas developed by Osher and Sethian (1988) to model propagating solid/liquid interfaces with curvature-dependent speeds. The interface (front) is a closed, nonintersecting, hypersurface flowing along its gradient field with constant speed or a speed that depends on the curvature. It is moved by solving a "Hamilton-Jacobi" type equation written for a function in which the interface is a particular level set. A speed term synthesized from the image is used to stop the interface in the vicinity of object boundaries. The resulting equation of motion is solved by employing entropy-satisfying upwind finite difference schemes. The authors present a variety of ways of computing the evolving front, including narrow bands, reinitializations, and different stopping criteria. The efficacy of the scheme is demonstrated with numerical experiments on some synthesized images and some low contrast medical images. >

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, Mumford-Shah (1989) functional for segmentation and level sets is proposed, which can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by the gradient.
Abstract: We propose a new model for active contours to detect objects in a given image, based on techniques of curve evolution, Mumford-Shah (1989) functional for segmentation and level sets. Our model can detect objects whose boundaries are not necessarily defined by the gradient. We minimize an energy which can be seen as a particular case of the minimal partition problem. In the level set formulation, the problem becomes a "mean-curvature flow"-like evolving the active contour, which will stop on the desired boundary. However, the stopping term does not depend on the gradient of the image, as in the classical active contour models, but is instead related to a particular segmentation of the image. We give a numerical algorithm using finite differences. Finally, we present various experimental results and in particular some examples for which the classical snakes methods based on the gradient are not applicable. Also, the initial curve can be anywhere in the image, and interior contours are automatically detected.

10,404 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jun 1995
TL;DR: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps.
Abstract: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours deforming according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric as defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical "snakes" based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved as showed by a number of examples. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. >

5,566 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a geodesic approach based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image is presented. But this approach is not suitable for 3D object segmentation.
Abstract: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical “snakes” based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.

4,967 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A look at progress in the field over the last 20 years is looked at and some of the challenges that remain for the years to come are suggested.
Abstract: The analysis of medical images has been woven into the fabric of the pattern analysis and machine intelligence (PAMI) community since the earliest days of these Transactions. Initially, the efforts in this area were seen as applying pattern analysis and computer vision techniques to another interesting dataset. However, over the last two to three decades, the unique nature of the problems presented within this area of study have led to the development of a new discipline in its own right. Examples of these include: the types of image information that are acquired, the fully three-dimensional image data, the nonrigid nature of object motion and deformation, and the statistical variation of both the underlying normal and abnormal ground truth. In this paper, we look at progress in the field over the last 20 years and suggest some of the challenges that remain for the years to come.

4,249 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a new external force for active contours, which is computed as a diffusion of the gradient vectors of a gray-level or binary edge map derived from the image, and has a large capture range and is able to move snakes into boundary concavities.
Abstract: Snakes, or active contours, are used extensively in computer vision and image processing applications, particularly to locate object boundaries. Problems associated with initialization and poor convergence to boundary concavities, however, have limited their utility. This paper presents a new external force for active contours, largely solving both problems. This external force, which we call gradient vector flow (GVF), is computed as a diffusion of the gradient vectors of a gray-level or binary edge map derived from the image. It differs fundamentally from traditional snake external forces in that it cannot be written as the negative gradient of a potential function, and the corresponding snake is formulated directly from a force balance condition rather than a variational formulation. Using several two-dimensional (2-D) examples and one three-dimensional (3-D) example, we show that GVF has a large capture range and is able to move snakes into boundary concavities.

4,071 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work uses snakes for interactive interpretation, in which user-imposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest, and uses scale-space continuation to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature.
Abstract: A snake is an energy-minimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scale-space continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo matching. We have used snakes successfully for interactive interpretation, in which user-imposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest.

18,095 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The PSC algorithm as mentioned in this paper approximates the Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws, which can be used also for more general surface motion problems.

13,020 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number.

4,148 citations

01 Jun 1995
TL;DR: In this article, a level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number.
Abstract: A level set method for capturing the interface between two fluids is combined with a variable density projection method to allow for computation of two-phase flow where the interface can merge/break and the flow can have a high Reynolds number. A distance function formulation of the level set method enables one to compute flows with large density ratios (1000/1) and flows that are surface tension driven; with no emotional involvement. Recent work has improved the accuracy of the distance function formulation and the accuracy of the advection scheme. We compute flows involving air bubbles and water drops, to name a few. We validate our code against experiments and theory.

3,556 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model of deformation which solves some of the problems encountered with the original method of energy-minimizing curves and makes the curve behave like a balloon which is inflated by an additional force.
Abstract: The use of energy-minimizing curves, known as “snakes,” to extract features of interest in images has been introduced by Kass, Witkin & Terzopoulos (Int. J. Comput. Vision 1, 1987, 321–331). We present a model of deformation which solves some of the problems encountered with the original method. The external forces that push the curve to the edges are modified to give more stable results. The original snake, when it is not close enough to contours, is not attracted by them and straightens to a line. Our model makes the curve behave like a balloon which is inflated by an additional force. The initial curve need no longer be close to the solution to converge. The curve passes over weak edges and is stopped only if the edge is strong. We give examples of extracting a ventricle in medical images. We have also made a first step toward 3D object reconstruction, by tracking the extracted contour on a series of successive cross sections.

2,432 citations