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社会研究方法基础 = The Basics of Social Research

TL;DR: This chapter discusses the construction of Inquiry, the science of inquiry, and the role of data in the design of research.
Abstract: Part I: AN INTRODUCTION TO INQUIRY. 1. Human Inquiry and Science. 2. Paradigms, Theory, and Research. 3. The Ethics and Politics of Social Research. Part II: THE STRUCTURING OF INQUIRY: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 4. Research Design. 5. Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement. 6. Indexes, Scales, and Typologies. 7. The Logic of Sampling. Part III: MODES OF OBSERVATION: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 8. Experiments. 9. Survey Research. 10. Qualitative Field Research. 11. Unobtrusive Research. 12. Evaluation Research. Part IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA:QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE . 13. Qualitative Data Analysis. 14. Quantitative Data Analysis. 15. Reading and Writing Social Research. Appendix A. Using the Library. Appendix B. Random Numbers. Appendix C. Distribution of Chi Square. Appendix D. Normal Curve Areas. Appendix E. Estimated Sampling Error.
Citations
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Book
12 Nov 2003

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An empirically-based definition ofdigital transformation derived from expert interviews is provided and a conceptual framework with reasons for, processes to, and expected outcomes of digital transformation in the public sector is developed.

463 citations


Cites methods from "社会研究方法基础 = The Basics of Social Res..."

  • ...This epistemological viewpoint, supported by our interpretative research design, helped us to understand the phenomenon in its context-specific settings (Babbie, 2013; Golafshani, 2003). Our methodology and methods are however not without limitations. For this study we draw on the procedures of engaging extensively with experts in the field and in reflexivity processes while conducting the interviews and collecting data, during the analysis and interpretation of the data and the results, as well as looking for disconfirming evidence in the data and the results. We focus on what Cresswell and Miller (2000) label as the socially constructed reality of our subjects or what Wilson described as government in action (Wilson, 1887)....

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  • ...This epistemological viewpoint, supported by our interpretative research design, helped us to understand the phenomenon in its context-specific settings (Babbie, 2013; Golafshani, 2003)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mixed-methods research is more expensive than a single method approach, but improves the validity and reliability of the resulting data and strengthens causal inferences by providing the opportunity to observe data convergence or divergence in hypothesis testing.
Abstract: The fact that people play key roles in nearly all aspects of construction suggests that effective construction research requires proper application of social science research methods. This is particularly true for researchers studying topics that involve human actions or behavior in construction processes, such as leadership, innovation, and planning. In social science research, no single method of data collection survey, experiment, participant observation, or unobtrusive research is ideal. Each method has inherent strengths and weak- nesses. Careful attention to the methodological ABCs of the design process, as discussed here, can enhance the validity and reliability of a given study. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in research design and data collection, however, should be considered whenever possible. Such mixed-methods research is more expensive than a single method approach, in terms of time, money, and energy, but improves the validity and reliability of the resulting data and strengthens causal inferences by providing the opportunity to observe data convergence or divergence in hypothesis testing. DOI: 10.1061/ASCECO.1943-7862.0000026 CE Database subject headings: Research; Methodology; Measurement; Data analysis; Construction management. Author keywords: Research methods; Mixed methods; Social science; Concept measurement; Data analysis.

377 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the hybrid phenomenon of social business, that is, both a form of organization and a practice that deliberately harnesses market dynamics to address deeply rooted social issues through the design and implementation of a core product or service.
Abstract: This article explores the hybrid phenomenon of social business, that is, both a form of organization and a practice that deliberately harnesses market dynamics to address deeply rooted social issues through the design and implementation of a core product or service. This new form of hybrid venture melds the social purpose traditionally associated with non-profit organizations with the economic purpose and market-based methods traditionally associated with for-profit firms. This exploratory research inductively explores the process by which social businesses are designed. The result suggests that clear intentionality around social purpose drives the design of these ventures and their associated missions and business models such that they can creatively synthesize competing paradigms (economic and social purpose) within one venture. The tight coupling of mission, method, and operationalization allows for the multi-stakeholder promise of the business model to be fulfilled.

315 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mediating role of team-building is proposed as a possible explanation of the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. But, the results of the study indicate that teambuilding partially mediates the effect of transformational leaders on project success, which is not known about the mechanisms that explain this effect.

298 citations

References
More filters
Book
12 Nov 2003

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An empirically-based definition ofdigital transformation derived from expert interviews is provided and a conceptual framework with reasons for, processes to, and expected outcomes of digital transformation in the public sector is developed.

463 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mixed-methods research is more expensive than a single method approach, but improves the validity and reliability of the resulting data and strengthens causal inferences by providing the opportunity to observe data convergence or divergence in hypothesis testing.
Abstract: The fact that people play key roles in nearly all aspects of construction suggests that effective construction research requires proper application of social science research methods. This is particularly true for researchers studying topics that involve human actions or behavior in construction processes, such as leadership, innovation, and planning. In social science research, no single method of data collection survey, experiment, participant observation, or unobtrusive research is ideal. Each method has inherent strengths and weak- nesses. Careful attention to the methodological ABCs of the design process, as discussed here, can enhance the validity and reliability of a given study. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in research design and data collection, however, should be considered whenever possible. Such mixed-methods research is more expensive than a single method approach, in terms of time, money, and energy, but improves the validity and reliability of the resulting data and strengthens causal inferences by providing the opportunity to observe data convergence or divergence in hypothesis testing. DOI: 10.1061/ASCECO.1943-7862.0000026 CE Database subject headings: Research; Methodology; Measurement; Data analysis; Construction management. Author keywords: Research methods; Mixed methods; Social science; Concept measurement; Data analysis.

377 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the hybrid phenomenon of social business, that is, both a form of organization and a practice that deliberately harnesses market dynamics to address deeply rooted social issues through the design and implementation of a core product or service.
Abstract: This article explores the hybrid phenomenon of social business, that is, both a form of organization and a practice that deliberately harnesses market dynamics to address deeply rooted social issues through the design and implementation of a core product or service. This new form of hybrid venture melds the social purpose traditionally associated with non-profit organizations with the economic purpose and market-based methods traditionally associated with for-profit firms. This exploratory research inductively explores the process by which social businesses are designed. The result suggests that clear intentionality around social purpose drives the design of these ventures and their associated missions and business models such that they can creatively synthesize competing paradigms (economic and social purpose) within one venture. The tight coupling of mission, method, and operationalization allows for the multi-stakeholder promise of the business model to be fulfilled.

315 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mediating role of team-building is proposed as a possible explanation of the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. But, the results of the study indicate that teambuilding partially mediates the effect of transformational leaders on project success, which is not known about the mechanisms that explain this effect.

298 citations