Short jute fiber‐reinforced polypropylene composites: Effect of compatibilizer
11 Jul 1998-Journal of Applied Polymer Science (Wiley)-Vol. 69, Iss: 2, pp 329-338
TL;DR: In this paper, the fiber loadings were 30, 40, 50, and 60 wt %, and at each fiber loading, compatibilizer doses were 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt percent.
Abstract: Jute fibers were chopped to approximately 100 mm in length and then processed through a granulator having an 8-mm screen. Final fiber lengths were up to 10 mm maximum. These fibers along with polypropylene granules and a compatibilizer were mixed in a K-mixer at a fixed rpm, 5500, and dumped at a fixed temperature, 390°F, following single-stage procedure. The fiber loadings were 30, 40, 50, and 60 wt %, and at each fiber loading, compatibilizer doses were 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt %. The K-mix samples were pressed and granulated. Finally, ASTM test specimens were molded using a Cincinnati injection molding machine. At 60% by weight of fiber loading, the use of the compatibilizer improved the flexural strength as high as 100%, tensile strength to 120%, and impact strength (unnotched) by 175%. Remarkable improvements were attained even with 1% compatibilizer only. Interface studies were carried out by SEM to investigate the fiber surface morphology, fiber pull-out, and fiber–polymer interface. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 69: 329–338, 1998
Abstract: Recently, there has been a rapid growth in research and innovation in the natural fibre composite (NFC) area. Interest is warranted due to the advantages of these materials compared to others, such as synthetic fibre composites, including low environmental impact and low cost and support their potential across a wide range of applications. Much effort has gone into increasing their mechanical performance to extend the capabilities and applications of this group of materials. This review aims to provide an overview of the factors that affect the mechanical performance of NFCs and details achievements made with them.
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental study on the mechanical and viscoelastic behavior of jute fiber reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was performed. And the results showed that the tensile, flexural and impact strengths increased with the increase in fibre loading upto 30%.
Abstract: The present paper summarizes an experimental study on the mechanical and viscoelastic behavior of jute fibre reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Variations in mechanical strength, storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″) and damping parameter (tan δ) with the addition of fibres and coupling agents were investigated. It was observed that the tensile, flexural and impact strengths increased with the increase in fibre loading upto 30%, above which there was a significant deterioration in the mechanical strength. Further, the composites treated with MAPE showed improved properties in comparison to the untreated composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis data showed an increase in the storage modulus of the treated composites The tan δ spectra presented a strong influence of fibre content and coupling agent on the α and γ relaxation process of HDPE. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from TGA/DTG thermograms. The fibre–matrix morphology in the treated composites was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens. FTIR spectra of the treated and untreated jute fibres was also studied to ascertain the existence of type of interfacial bonds.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the effect of modification way of short flax fibre bundle/polypropylene composites on mechanical properties and found that using MAPP as coupling agent improved the mechanical properties of composites.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to compare the effect of modification way of short flax fibre bundle/polypropylene (PP) composites on mechanical properties Modification was carried out on fibre surface and also modifying PP matrix using several amounts of maleic anhydride-polypropylene copolymer (MAPP) as compatibilizer The optimum doses of two different MAPP compatibilizers have been obtained The effect of fibre bundle loading on composite mechanical properties was also analysed The influence of water uptake on the sorption characteristics of composites has been studied by immersion in distilled water at room temperature The effects of fibre bundle loading and also the use of MAPP modification on both water sorption and mechanical properties were also evaluated Results showed that using MAPP as coupling agent, mechanical properties of composites improved, and water uptake rate clearly decreased However, after long period of water immersion mechanical properties drastically decreased On the other hand, mechanical recycling of flax fibre bundle/PP composites has been shown to be feasible
TL;DR: In this paper, the modulus of jute fibres improved by 12, 68 and 79% after 4, 6 and 8 h of NaOH treatment, respectively, for 35% composites with 4 h-treated fibres, and laminar shear strength increased from 0.238 to 0.283 MPa by 19%.
Abstract: Jute fibres were subjected to alkali treatment with 5% NaOH solution for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 30°C. The modulus of the jute fibres improved by 12, 68 and 79% after 4, 6 and 8 h of treatment, respectively. The tenacity of the fibres improved by 46% after 6 and 8 h treatment and the % breaking strain was reduced by 23% after 8 h treatment. For 35% composites with 4 h-treated fibres, the flexural strength improved from 199.1 to 238.9 MPa by 20%, modulus improved from 11.89 to 14.69 GPa by 23% and laminar shear strength increased from 0.238 to 0.283 MPa by 19%. On plotting different values of slopes obtained from the rates of improvement of flexural strength and modulus, against NaOH treatment time, two different failure modes were apparent before and after 4 h of NaOH treatment. In the first region between 0 and 4 h, fibre pull out was predominant whereas in the second region between 6 and 8 h, transverse fracture occurred with minimum fibre pull out. This observation was well supported by the SEM investigations of the fracture surfaces.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of fiber treatments and matrix modification on mechanical properties of flax fibre bundle/polypropylene composites has been investigated and the results suggest that matrix modification led to better mechanical performance than fibre surface modification.
Abstract: The effect of fibre treatments and matrix modification on mechanical properties of flax fibre bundle/polypropylene composites was investigated. Treatments using chemicals such as maleic anhydride, vinyltrimethoxy silane, maleic anhydride-polypropylene copolymer and also fibre alkalization were carried out in order to modify the interfacial bonding between fibre bundles and polymeric matrix. Composites were produced by employing two compounding ways: internal mixing and extrusion. Mechanical behaviour of both flax fibre bundle and hybrid glass/flax fibre bundle composites was studied. Fracture surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Results suggest that matrix modification led to better mechanical performance than fibre surface modification. A relevant fact is that silanes or MA grafted onto PP matrix lead to mechanical properties of composites even better than those for MAPP modification, and close to those for glass fibre/PP.