TL;DR: Evidence that insulin acutely affects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes is presented and a coherent picture emerges of the concerted mechanism by which insulin sets the stage for lipogenesis in the hepatocyte.
Abstract: This article presents evidence that insulin acutely affects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. A coherent picture emerges of the concerted mechanism by which insulin sets the stage for lipogenesis in the hepatocyte.
TL;DR: The fasted-to-fed transition of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism can be accomplished in vitro over a time frame similar to that operative in vivo, and the requirement for insulin in the reversal of the fasting state of liver metabolism in vivo can best be explained by its ability to offset the catabolic actions of glucagon.
Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine whether the direction of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the rat could be switched simultaneously from a "fasted" to a "fed" profile in vitro. When incubated for 2 h under appropriate conditions hepatocytes from fasted animals could be induced to synthesize glycogen at in vivo rates. There was concomitant marked elevation of the tissue malonyl-coenzyme A level, acceleration of fatty acid synthesis, and suppression of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. In agreement with reports from some laboratories, but contrary to popular belief, glucose was not taken up efficiently by the cells and was thus a poor substrate for eigher glycogen synthesis or lipogenesis. The best precursor for glycogen formation was fructose, whereas lactate (pyruvate) was most efficient in lipogenesis. In both case the addition of glucose to the gluconeogenic substrates was stimulatory, the highest rates being obtained with the further inclusion of glutamine. Insulin was neither necessary for, nor did it stimulate, glycogen deposition or fatty acid synthesis under favorable substrate conditions. Glucagon at physiological concentrations inhibited both glycogen formation and fatty acid synthesis. Insulin readily reversed the effects of glucagon in the submaximal range of its concentration curve. The following conclusions were drawn. First, the fasted-to-fed transition of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism can be accomplished in vitro over a time frame similar to that operative in vivo. Second, reversal appears to be a substrate-driven phenomenon, in that insulin is not required. Third, unless an unidentified factor (present in protal blood during feeding) facilitates the uptake of glucose by liver it seems unlikely that glucose is the immediate precursor for liver glycogen or fat synthesis in vivo. A likely candidate for the primary substrate in both processes is lactate, which is rapidly formed from glucose by the small intestine and peripheral tissues. Fructose and amino acids may also contribute. Fourth, the requirement for insulin in the reversal of the fasting state of liver metabolism in vivo can best be explained by its ability to offset the catabolic actions of glucagon.
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...sis in rat hepatocytes have also been reported (4, 32-34), but again were not of great magnitude....
TL;DR: It is concluded that the effects of insulin and glucagon on the overall process of triacylglycerol secretion are reflections of the hormone-determined rate of Triacyl Glycerol synthesis.
Abstract: 1. Isolated hepatocytes from meal-fed donor rats secrete newly synthesized very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) when incubated in a simple bicarbonate buffer. When incubated with 3H2O for 2 h, 72-81% of the 3H-labelled triacylglycerols secreted by the hepatocytes were recovered in VLDL. The secretion of newly synthesized triacylglycerols shows a lag phase of about 30 min. 2. Insulin stimulates the secretion of newly synthesized VLDL triacylglycerols, whereas glucagon has an inhibitory effect on this process. 3. When hepatocytes triacylglycerols were labelled by preincubating the cells with 3H2O or [1-14C]oleate and the cells were subsequently washed and further incubated in radioisotope-free buffer containing hormones, it was observed that the release of the pre-labelled triacylglycerols is not hormone-sensitive. This suggests that insulin and glucagon do not affect the release of triacylglycerols per se. 4. It is concluded that the effects of insulin and glucagon on the overall process of triacylglycerol secretion are reflections of the hormone-determined rate of triacylglycerol synthesis.
TL;DR: Findings suggest that insulin-induced increases in DAG may lead to increases in protein kinase C activity, and may explain some of the insulin-like effects of phorbol esters and vasopressin on hepatocyte metabolism.
Abstract: The effects of insulin on phospholipid metabolism and generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and on activation of protein kinase C in rat hepatocytes were compared to those of vasopressin and angiotension II. Insulin provoked increases in [3H]glycerol labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA), diacylglycerol (DAG), and other glycerolipids within 30 s of stimulation. Similar increases were also noted for vasopressin and angiotensin II. Corresponding rapid increases in DAG mass also occurred with all three hormones. As increases in [3H]DAG (and DAG mass) occurred within 30–60 s of the simultaneous addition of [3H]glycerol and hormone, it appeared that DAG was increased, at least partly, through the de novo synthesis of PA. That de novo synthesis of PA was increased is supported by the fact that [3H]glycerol labeling of total glycerolipids was increased by all three agents. Increases in [3H]glycerol labeling of lipids by insulin were not due to increased labeling of glycerol 3-phosphate, and were therefore probably due to activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Unlike vasopressin, insulin did not increase the hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids. Insulin- and vasopressin-induced increases in DAG were accompanied by increases in cytosolic and membrane-associated protein kinase C activity. These findings suggest that insulin-induced increases in DAG may lead to increases in protein kinase C activity, and may explain some of the insulin-like effects of phorbol esters and vasopressin on hepatocyte metabolism.
TL;DR: The stimulation of glycolysis by insulin was investigated in monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes and dexamethasone acted both as a long-term and short-term modulator, and the stimulatory effects of insulin may in part be attributed to the activated pyruvate kinase.
Abstract: Evidence for a direct metabolic effect of insulin in isolated liver preparations is scarce. The stimulation of glycolysis by insulin previously demonstrated in monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes [(1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 126, 271-278] was further investigated. The degree of stimulation varied with the age of the culture and amounted to 250%, 200%, 500% and 200% of the control value using cells at the culture age of 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. Half-maximal dose of insulin was 0.1 nM. Maximal stimulation was reached within 5 min and lasted for at least 4 h. Dexamethasone acted both as a long-term and short-term modulator. Long-term pretreatment of the cells with dexamethasone proved necessary to permit insulin action. In addition to this permissive action, pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the insulin-independent basal glycolytic rate. In short-term experiments dexamethasone decreased the basal glycolytic flux, however, it did not affect the absolute increase in glycolysis brought about by insulin. The half-maximal dose of dexamethasone was 10 nM. The stimulatory effects of insulin may in part be attributed to the activation of pyruvate kinase. Insulin produced a left-shift of the substrate saturation curve, decreasing the K0.5 value for phosphoenolpyruvate.
TL;DR: It is proposed that all of the drugs exert an inhibitory action at the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the enzyme generally considered to catalyse the rate-limiting step in hepatic fatty acid synthesis.
Abstract: An overview is presented of a selected number of mono-aromatic derivatives and their short-term effects on hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis. The compounds discussed in this paper are ortho-hydroxybenzoate (salicylate), meta-hydroxybenzoate, para-hydroxybenzoate, benzoate, para-t--butylbenzoate, para-aminosalicylate, clofibrate, halofenate, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnmate and benfluorex. all of these drugs inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis by isolated rat liver cells, albeit with different effectiveness. In contrast, the compounds have differential effects on fatty acid esterification and oxidation by isolated hepatocytes. An attempt is made to describe in molecular terms the underlying mechanisms of the acute inhibitory effects of the mono-aromatic derivatives on hepatic lipogenesis. It is proposed that all of the drugs exert an inhibitory action at the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the enzyme generally considered to catalyse the rate-limiting step in hepatic fatty acid synthesis. This inhibitory effect may be either direct, i.e. by an alteration of the enzyme's structure as a result of interaction between drug and enzyme, or indirect, i.e. through a drug-induced change in the cellular levels of allosteric effectors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
TL;DR: Light is shed on the relative significance of liver and adipose tissue in fatty acid synthesis in mice, on the mino importance of glucose in hepatic lipogenesis, and on the alterations in the rate of fatty acids synthesis in genetically obese mice.
Abstract: 1. The synthesis of long-chain fatty acids de novo was measured in the liver and in regions of adipose tissue in intact normal and genetically obses mice throughout the daily 24h cycle. 2. The total rate of synthesis, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into fatty acid, was highest during the dark period, in liver and adipose tissue of lean or obese mice. 3. The rate of incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]glucose into fatty acid was also followed (in the same mice). The 14C/3H ratios were higher by a factor of 5-20 in parametrial and scapular fat than that in liver. This difference was less marked during the dark period (of maximum fatty acid synthesis). 4. In normal mice, the total rate of fatty acid synthesis in the liver was about twofold greater than that in all adipose tissue regions combined. 5. In obese mice, the rate of fatty acid synthesis was more rapid than in lean mice, in both liver and adipose tissue. Most of the extra lipogenesis occurred in adipose tissue. The extra hepatic fatty acids synthesized in obese mice were located in triglyceride rather than phospholipid. 6. In adipose tissue of normal mice, the rate of fatty acid synthesis was most rapid in the intra-abdominal areas and in brown fat. In obese mice, all regions exhibited rapid rates of fatty acid synthesis. 7. These results shed light on the relative significance of liver and adipose tissue (i.e. the adipose 'organ') in fatty acid synthesis in mice, on the mino importance of glucose in hepatic lipogenesis, and on the alterations in the rate of fatty acid synthesis in genetically obese mice.
TL;DR: The changes in the kinetic properties of hepatic pyruvate kinase which follow treating the perfused rat liver with glucagon or cyclic AMP are consistent with the changes observed in the enzyme properties upon phosphorylation in vitro by a clyclicAMP-stimulated protein kinase.
Abstract: A reversible interconversion of two kinetically distinct forms of hepatic pyruvate kinase regulated by glucagon and insulin is demonstrated in the perfused rat liver. The regulation does not involve the total enzyme content of the liver, but rather results in a modulation of the substrate dependence. The forms of pyruvate kinase in liver homogenates are distinguished by measurements of the ratio of the enzyme activity at a subsaturating concentration of P-enolpyruvate (1.3 mM) to the activity at a saturating concentration of this substrate (6.6 mM). A low ratio form of pyruvate kinase (ratio between 0.1 and 0.2) is obtained from livers perfused with 10(-7) M glucagon or 0.1 mM adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP). A high ratio form of the enzyme is obtained from livers perfused with no hormone (ratio = 0.35 to 0.45). The regulation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon and cyclic AMP occurs within 2 min following the hormone addition to the liver. Insulin (22 milliunits/ml) counteracts the inhibition of pyruvate kinase caused by 5 X 10(-11) M glucagon, but has only a slight influence on the enzyme properties in the absence of the hyperglycemic hormone. The low ratio form of pyruvate kinase obtained from livers perfused with glucagon or cyclic AMP is unstable in liver extracts and will revert to a high ratio form within 10 min at 37 degrees or within a few hours at 0 degrees. Pyruvate kinase is quantitatively precipitated from liver supernatants with 2.5 M ammonium sulfate. This precipitation stabilizes the enzyme and preserves the kinetically distinguishable forms. The kinetic properties of the two forms of rat hepatic pyruvate kinase are examined using ammonium sulfate precipitates from the perfused rat liver. At pH 7.5 the high ratio form of the enzyme has [S]0.5 = 1.6 +/- 0.2 mM P-enolpyruvate (n = 8). The low ratio form of enzyme from livers perfused with glucagon or cyclic AMP has [S]0.5 = 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM P-enolpyruvate (n = 8). The modification of pyruvate kinase induced by glucagon does not alter the dependence of the enzyme activity on ADP (Km is approximately 0.5 mM ADP for both forms of the enzyme). Both forms are allosterically modulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, L-alanine, and ATP. The changes in the kinetic properties of hepatic pyruvate kinase which follow treating the perfused rat liver with glucagon or cyclic AMP are consistent with the changes observed in the enzyme properties upon phosphorylation in vitro by a clyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase (Ljungstrom, O., Hjelmquist, G. and Engstrom, L. (1974) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 358, 289--298). However, other factors also influence the enzyme activity in a similar manner and it remains to be demonstrated that the regulation of hepatic pyruvate kinase by glucagon and cyclic AMP in vivo involes a phosphorylation.
TL;DR: Phosphofructokinase inactivation by glucagon parallels the known inactivation of pyruvate kinase L and activation of glycogen phosphorylase alpha and exogenous cyclic AMP mimics the effect of this hormone.
Abstract: Kinetic evidence of a time- and dose-dependent inactivation of phosphofructokinase by glucagon in isolated rat hepatocytes is reported. This inactivation, which persists after gel filtration of a cell-free extract on Sephadex G-25 and after 400-fold purification of the enzyme on agarose-ATP, is observed when the enzyme activity is measured at subsaturating concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate, while there is no change in Vmax. Phosphofructokinase inactivation by glucagon parallels the known inactivation of pyruvate kinase L and activation of glycogen phosphorylase alpha. Exogenous cyclic AMP mimics the effect of this hormone. Half-maximal effect for both phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase L is caused by a similar dose of glucagon (1 x 10(-10) M). The inactivation of phosphofructokinase by nonsaturating concentration of glucagon is reversed spontaneously within 40 min of incubation and this reversion is accelerated by insulin.