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Journal ArticleDOI

Signaling Recognition Events with Fluorescent Sensors and Switches.

05 Aug 1997-Chemical Reviews (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 97, Iss: 5, pp 1515-1566
About: This article is published in Chemical Reviews.The article was published on 1997-08-05. It has received 6396 citations till now.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Anion recognition chemistry has grown from its beginnings with positively charged ammonium cryptand receptors for halide binding to a plethora of charged and neutral, cyclic and acyclic, inorganic and organic supramolecular host systems for the selective complexation, detection, and separation of anionic guest species.
Abstract: Anion recognition chemistry has grown from its beginnings in the late 1960s with positively charged ammonium cryptand receptors for halide binding to, at the end of the millennium, a plethora of charged and neutral, cyclic and acyclic, inorganic and organic supramolecular host systems for the selective complexation, detection, and separation of anionic guest species. Solvation effects and pH values have been shown to play crucial roles in the overall anion recognition process. More recent developments include exciting advances in anion-templated syntheses and directed self-assembly, ion-pair recognition, and the function of anions in supramolecular catalysis.

3,145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Bodipy family, first developed as luminescent tags and laser dyes, has become a cornerstone for these new applications and the near future looks extremely bright for "porphyrin's little sister".
Abstract: The world of organic luminophores has been confined for a long time to fairly standard biological labeling applications and to certain analytical tests. Recently, however, the field has undergone a major change of direction, driven by the dual needs to develop novel organic electronic materials and to fuel the rapidly emerging nanotechnologies. Among the many diverse fluorescent molecules, the Bodipy family, first developed as luminescent tags and laser dyes, has become a cornerstone for these new applications. The near future looks extremely bright for "porphyrin's little sister".

2,705 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new family of highly fluorescent indicators has been synthesized for biochemical studies of the physiological role of cytosolic free Ca2+ using an 8-coordinate tetracarboxylate chelating site with stilbene chromophores that offer up to 30-fold brighter fluorescence.

21,582 citations

MonographDOI
26 May 1995
TL;DR: From molecular to supramolescular chemistry: concepts and language of supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition, information, complementarity molecular receptors - design principles and more.
Abstract: Part 1 From molecular to supramolecular chemistry: concepts and language of supramolecular chemistry. Part 2 Molecular recognition: recognition, information, complementarity molecular receptors - design principles spherical recognition - cryptates of metal cations tetrahedral recognition by macrotricyclic cryptands recognition of ammonium ions and related substrates binding and recognition of neutral moelcules. Part 3 Anion co-ordination chemistry and the recognition of anionic substrates. Part 4 Coreceptor molecules and multiple recognition: dinuclear and polynuclear metal ion cryptates linear recognition of molecular length by ditopic coreceptors heterotopic coreceptors - cyclophane receptors, amphiphilic receptors, large molecular cage multiple recognition in metalloreceptors supramolecular dynamics. Part 5 Supramolecular reactivity and catalysis: catalysis by reactive macrocyclic cation receptor molecules catalysis by reactive anion receptor molecules catalysis with cyclophane type receptors supramolecular metallo-catalysis cocatalysis - catalysis of synthetic reactions biomolecular and abiotic catalysis. Part 6 Transport processes and carrier design: carrier-mediated transport cation-transport processes - cation carriers anion transport processes - anion carriers coupled transport processes electron-coupled transpoort in a redox gradient proton-coupled transport in a pH gradient light-coupled transport processes transfer via transmembrane channels. Part 7 From supermolecules to polymolecular assemblies: heterogeneous molecular recognition - supramolecular solid materials from endoreceptors to exoreceptors - molecular recognition at surfaces molecular and supramolecular morphogenesis supramolecular heterogeneous catalysis. Part 8 Molecular and supramolecular devices: molecular recognition, information and signals - semiochemistry supramolecular photochemistry - molecular and supramolecular photonic devices light conversion and energy transfer devices photosensitive molecular receptors photoinduced electron transfer in photoactive devices photoinduced reactions in supramolecular species non-linear optical properties of supramolecular species supramolecular effects in photochemical hole burning molecular and supramolecular electronic devices supramolecular electrochemistry electron conducting devices - molecular wires polarized molecular wires - rectifying devices modified and switchable molecular wires molecular magnetic devices molecular and supramolecular ionic devices tubular mesophases. (Part contents).

8,168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review compiles positively and negatively solvatochromic compounds which have been used to establish empirical scales of solvent polarity by means of UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopic measurements in solution.
Abstract: This review compiles positively and negatively solvatochromic compounds which have been used to establish empirical scales of solvent polarity by means of UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopic measurements in solution-with particular emphasis on the E ~ ( 3 0 ) scale derived from negatively solvatochromic pyridinium N-phenolate betaine dyes. This requires a short discussion of the concept of solvent polarity and how empirical parameters of solvent polarity can be derived and understood in the framework of linear free-energy relationships. The preconditions for the occurrence of solvatochromism, and further requirements of solvatochromic compounds for them to be useful as solvent polarity indicators will be discussed. In addition to spectroscopically based single parameters of solvent polarity, multiparameter treatments of solvent effects by means of solvatochromic parameters will also be mentioned. The mutual interrelation between some of the more important W/vis/near-IR spectroscopically derived solvent scales, and their correlations with solvatochromic multiparameter equations will be exemplarily given.

4,512 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the rate constants of 60 typical electron donor-acceptor systems have been measured in de-oxygenated acetonitrile and are shown to be correlated with the free enthalpy change, ΔG23, involved in the actual electron transfer process.
Abstract: Fluorescence quenching rate constants, kq, ranging from 106 to 2 × 1010 M−1 sec−1, of more than 60 typical electron donor-acceptor systems have been measured in de-oxygenated acetonitrile and are shown to be correlated with the free enthalpy change, ΔG23, involved in the actual electron transfer process in the encounter complex and varying between + 5 and −60 kcal/mole. The correlation which is based on the mechanism of adiabatic outer-sphere electron transfer requires ΔG≠23, the activation free enthalpy of this process to be a monotonous function of ΔG23 and allows the calculation of rate constants of electron transfer quenching from spectroscopic and electrochemical data. A detailed study of some systems where the calculated quenching constants differ from the experimental ones by several orders of magnitude revealed that the quenching mechanism operative in these cases was hydrogen-atom rather than electron transfer. The conditions under which these different mechanisms apply and their consequences are discussed.

3,485 citations