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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-8138-0_16

Significance of Interface Modeling in the Analysis of Laterally Loaded Deep Foundations

01 Jan 2021-Vol. 103, pp 199-209
Abstract: Interface modeling is one of the important components in the numerical modeling of soil–structure interaction problem. It is equally important as material and geometrical modeling. Inaccurate modeling of the interface between the soil and the structure may lead to unreliable results. However, in many cases, interface modeling is overlooked and the interface between the soil and the structure is generally modeled as a rigid connection. In the present paper, we have shown the influence of interface modeling in the analysis of laterally loaded deep foundations. A finite element model of laterally loaded foundation–soil system is developed wherein the foundation is modeled as a linear elastic system and the soil as nonlinear which is defined by the multi-yield surface plasticity model. The interface between the soil and the foundation is modeled using zero thickness contact element, which is defined, by constitutive relationships capable to define sliding and separation mechanisms at the interface. The results obtained from the proposed finite element model are then compared with the conventional approach of interface modeling. The present study indicates that the conventional approach overestimates the lateral load capacity of deep foundation as well as it is unable to explain the mechanisms of the deformation of laterally loaded foundation–soil system.

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Topics: Finite element method (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOILDYN.2005.12.003
Nikos Gerolymos1, George Gazetas1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A generalized spring multi-Winkler model is developed for the static and dynamic response of rigid caisson foundations of circular, square, or rectangular plan, embedded in a homogeneous elastic. The model, referred to as a four-spring Winkler model, uses four types of springs to model the interaction between soil and caisson: lateral translational springs distributed along the length of the caisson relating horizontal displacement at a particular depth to lateral soil resistance (resultant of normal and shear tractions on the caisson periphery); similarly distributed rotational springs relating rotation of the caisson to the moment increment developed by the vertical shear tractions on the caisson periphery; and concentrated translational and rotational springs relating, respectively, resultant horizontal shear force with displacement, and overturning moment with rotation, at the base of the caisson. For the dynamic problem each spring is accompanied by an associated dashpot in parallel. Utilising elastodynamic theoretical available in the literature results for rigid embedded foundations, closed-form expressions are derived for the various springs and dashpots of caissons with rectangular and circular plan shape. The response of a caisson to lateral static and dynamic loading at its top, and to kinematically-induced loading arising from vertical seismic shear wave propagation, is then studied parametrically. Comparisons with results from 3D finite element analysis and other available theoretical methods demonstrate the reliability of the model, the need for which arises from its easy extension to multi-layered and nonlinear inelastic soil. Such an extension is presented in the companion papers by the authors [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Development of Winkler model for lateral static and dynamic response of caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper; Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities—validation and results. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng. Submitted companion paper.]. q 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Caisson (67%)

124 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOILDYN.2005.12.002
Nikos Gerolymos1, George Gazetas1Institutions (1)
Abstract: As an extension of the elastic multi-spring model developed by the authors in a companion paper [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Winkler model for lateral response of rigid caisson foundations in linear soil. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng; 2005 (submitted companion paper).], this paper develops a nonlinear Winkler-spring method for the static, cyclic, and dynamic response of caisson foundations. The nonlinear soil reactions along the circumference and on the base of the caisson are modeled realistically by using suitable couple translational and rotational nonlinear interaction springs and dashpots, which can realistically (even if approximately) model such effects as separation and slippage at the caisson–soil interface, uplift of the caisson base, radiation damping, stiffness and strength degradation with large number of cycles. The method is implemented in a new finite difference time-domain code, NL-CAISSON. An efficient numerical methodology is also developed for calibrating the model parameters using a variety of experimental and analytical data. The necessity for the proposed model arises from the difficulty to predict the large-amplitude dynamic response of caissons up to failure, statically or dynamically. In a subsequent companion paper [Gerolymos N, Gazetas G. Static and dynamic response of massive caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities—validation and results. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng; 2005 (submitted companion paper).], the model is validated against in situ medium-scale static load tests and results of 3D finite element analysis. It is then used to analyse the dynamic response of a laterally loaded caisson considering soil and interface nonlinearities. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Caisson (63%)

112 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10518-016-9870-2
Sudhir K. Jain1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The Indian subcontinent has suffered some of the greatest earthquakes in the world. The earthquakes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries triggered a number of early advances in science and engineering related to earthquakes that are discussed here. These include the development of early codes and earthquake-resistant housing after the 1935 Quetta earthquake in Baluchistan, and strengthening techniques implemented after the 1941 Andaman Islands earthquake, discovered by the author in remote islands of India. Activities in the late 1950s to institutionalize earthquake engineering in the country are also discussed. Despite these early developments towards seismic safety, moderate earthquakes in India continue to cause thousands of deaths, indicating the poor seismic resilience of the built environment. The Bhuj earthquake of 2001 highlighted a striking disregard for structural design principles and quality of construction. This earthquake was the first instance of an earthquake causing collapses of modern multi-storey buildings in India, and it triggered unprecedented awareness amongst professionals, academics and the general public. The earthquake led to the further development of the National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering and the establishment of a comprehensive 4-year National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education that was carried out by the seven Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institute of Science. Earthquake engineering is a highly context-specific discipline and there are many engineering problems where appropriate solutions need to be found locally. Confined masonry construction is one such building typology that the author has been championing for the subcontinent. Development of the student hostels and staff and faculty housing on the new 400-acre campus of the Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar has provided an opportunity to adopt this construction typology on a large scale, and is addressed in the monograph. The vulnerability of the building stock in India is also evident from the occasional news reports of collapses of buildings under construction or during rains (without any earthquake shaking). Given India’s aspirations to be counted as one of the world’s prosperous countries, there is a great urgency to address the safety of our built environment. There is a need: to create a more professional environment for safe construction, including a system for code enforcement and building inspection; for competence-based licensing of civil and structural engineers; for training and education of all stakeholders in the construction chain; to build a research and development culture for seismic safety; to encourage champions of seismic safety; to effectively use windows of opportunity provided by damaging earthquakes; to focus on new construction as opposed to retrofitting existing buildings; and to frame the problem in the broader context of overall building safety rather than the specific context of earthquakes. Sustained long-term efforts are required to address this multi-faceted complex problem of great importance to the future development of India. While the context of this paper is India, many of the observations may be valid and useful for other earthquake-prone countries.

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31 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SOILDYN.2011.08.002
Abstract: Seismic analysis of soil–well–pier system was carried out using three different approaches to evaluate their comparative performance and associated complexities. These approaches were (a) two-dimensional nonlinear (2D-NL), (b) two-dimensional equivalent-linear (2D-EqL), and (c) one-dimensional spring–dashpot (1D). Soil was modeled as 2D plane-strain elements in the 2D-NL and 2D-EqL approaches, and as springs and dashpots in the 1D approach. Nonlinear behavior of soil was captured rigorously in the 2D-NL approach and approximately in the remaining two approaches. Results of the two approximate analyses (i.e., 2D-EqL and 1D) were compared with those of the 2D-NL analysis with the objective to assess suitability of approximate analysis for practical purposes. In the 1D approach, several combinations of Novak's and Veletsos' springs were used to come up with a simplified 1D model using three types of spring–dashpots. The proposed model estimates the displacement and force resultants relatively better than the other 1D models available in literature.

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Topics: Seismic analysis (53%), Displacement (vector) (51%), Pier (50%)

16 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1193/1.4000141
01 May 2013-Earthquake Spectra
Abstract: Two-dimensional computational models of bridge abutment-soil systems are developed using the OpenSees framework. Nonlinear hysteretic behavior of backfill and foundation soil is simulated through a...

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Topics: OpenSees (60%)

12 Citations


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