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Journal ArticleDOI

Silurian conodont biostratigraphy and carbon (δ13Ccarb) isotope stratigraphy of the Victor Mine (V-03-270-AH) core in the Moose River Basin

21 Oct 2015-Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (GeoScienceWorld)-Vol. 52, Iss: 12, pp 1169-1181

Abstract: The Moose River Basin in Ontario, Canada, contains nearly 1 km of Silurian marine strata, and although it has been studied for more than a century, its precise correlation globally has not been constrained. Herein, a core from the Victor Mine in the Moose River Basin was examined for conodont biostratigraphy and carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) isotope chemostratigraphy to provide a detailed chronostratigraphic framework for the Silurian strata (Severn River, Ekwan River, and Attawapiskat formations) in the Moose River Basin. The recovery of Aspelundia expansa, Aspelundia fluegeli fluegeli, Distomodus staurognathoides, Ozarkodina polinclinata estonica, Pterospathodus eopennatus, and Aulacognathus bullatus, as well as the lower Aeronian, upper Aeronian, lower Telychian (Valgu), and ascending limb of the Sheinwoodian (Ireviken) positive carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) isotope excursions provide significantly improved chronostratigraphic correlation of Llandovery strata in the Moose River Basin.
Topics: Chemostratigraphy (52%), Conodont (52%), Biostratigraphy (52%), Drainage basin (51%)

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Draft
Silurian Conodont Biostratigraphy and Carbon (δ
13
C
carb
)
Isotope Stratigraphy of the Victor Mine (V-03-270-
AH) Core
in the Moose River Basin
Journal:
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
Manuscript ID
cjes-2015-0091.R1
Manuscript Type:
Article
Date Submitted by the Author:
07-Oct-2015
Complete List of Authors:
Bancroft, Alyssa M.; The University of Iowa, Department of Earth and
Environmental Sciences
Brunton, Frank R.; Ministry of Northern Development
Kleffner, Mark A.; School of Earth Sciences
Keyword:
Silurian, conodonts, carbon isotopes, Llandovery, Moose River Basin
https://mc06.manuscriptcentral.com/cjes-pubs
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences

Draft
1
Silurian Conodont Biostratigraphy and Carbon (δ
13
C
carb
) Isotope Stratigraphy of the
1
Victor Mine (V-03-270-AH) Core in the Moose River Basin
2
Corresponding Author:
3
Alyssa M. Bancroft, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Iowa,
4
115 Trowbridge Hall, Iowa City, Iowa, USA 52242
5
[alyssa-bancroft@uiowa.edu]
6
+1(231)881-0533
7
8
Frank R. Brunton, Earth Resources and Geoscience Mapping Section, Ontario Geological Survey,
9
Willet Green Miller Center, 933 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
10
P3E6B5
11
[frank.brunton@ontario.ca]
12
13
Mark A. Kleffner, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University Lima, 4240 Campus Drive,
14
Lima, Ohio, USA 45804
15
[kleffner.1@osu.edu]
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17
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19
20
21
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Draft
2
Abstract
23
The Moose River Basin in Ontario, Canada contains nearly one kilometer of Silurian
24
marine strata, and although it has been studied for more than a century, its precise correlation
25
globally has not been constrained. Herein, a core from the Victor Mine in the Moose River
26
Basin was examined for conodont biostratigraphy and carbonate carbon (δ
13
C
carb
) isotope
27
chemostratigraphy to provide a detailed chronostratigraphic framework for the Silurian strata
28
(Severn River, Ekwan River, and Attawapiskat formations) in the Moose River Basin. The
29
recovery of Aspelundia expansa, Aspelundia fluegeli fluegeli, Distomodus staurognathoides,
30
Ozarkodina polinclinata estonica, Pterospathodus eopennatus, and Aulacognathus bullatus, as
31
well as the lower Aeronian, upper Aeronian, lower Telychian (Valgu), and ascending limb of the
32
Sheinwoodian (Ireviken) positive carbonate carbon (δ
13
C
carb
) isotope excursions provide
33
significantly improved chronostratigraphic correlation of Llandovery strata in the Moose River
34
Basin.
35
36
Keywords: Silurian, conodonts, carbon isotopes, Llandovery, Moose River Basin
37
38
Introduction
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The Hudson Platform (central Canadian Shield, Fig. 1) was located in the tropical climate
40
belt during the Silurian Period at low latitudes (between 0°S and 10°S) just south of the equator
41
on the northeastern margin of the paleocontinent Laurentia. Sediment deposition and faunal
42
distribution during this time were controlled by a northeast-trending Precambrian basement
43
high, the Cape Henrietta Maria Arch (Patricia Arch of Nelson and Johnson 1966), which
44
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3
separated two cratonic sedimentary basins: the Hudson Bay Basin (to the north) and the
45
Moose River Basin (to the south).
46
Silurian stratigraphy of the Hudson Platform has been summarized by Norris (1993a,
47
1993b), Sanford et al. (1993), and Norford (1997). Detailed stratigraphic studies of the Silurian
48
succession in the Hudson Platform include conodont biostratigraphy, brachiopod
49
biostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy (Le Fèvre et al. 1976; Suchy 1992; Suchy and Stearn
50
1992; Jin et al. 1993; Zhang and Barnes 2007). However, the relative age and regional
51
lithostratigraphic relationships of these Silurian units have not been constrained precisely. The
52
Moose River Basin provides the unique opportunity to examine the Llandovery Series in
53
carbonate strata, but precise chronostratigraphic control for the nearly one-kilometer-thick
54
succession is not available which has limited the utility of the Moose River Basin to studies of
55
Silurian global change events.
56
The Silurian stratigraphic succession of the Hudson Platform (units named by Savage
57
and Van Tuyl 1919) consists of the Severn River, Ekwan River, and Attawapiskat formations, in
58
ascending order (Fig. 2). The Severn River Formation, comprised of shallow marine carbonates
59
(Savage and Van Tuyl 1919), disconformably overlies the Red Head Rapids Formation, and this
60
disconformity has been interpreted to represent either an interval containing the missing
61
Ordovician-Silurian boundary (Sanford et al. 1968; Norris and Sanford 1969; Norford 1970,
62
1988; Suchy and Stearn 1992; Jin et al. 1993) or an interval of missing lower Llandovery strata
63
(Le Fèvre et al. 1976; Norris 1993b; Jin et al. 1993). The Severn River Formation is variously
64
interpreted to be overlain either conformably (Norris 1993b; Jin et al. 1993) or disconformably
65
(Suchy 1992; Suchy and Stearn 1992; Armstrong 2011; Lavoie et al. 2013; Armstrong et al. 2013)
66
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by the Ekwan River Formation, however the extent of the missing stratigraphic interval has not
67
been constrained (Suchy and Stearn 1992; Armstrong 2011; Lavoie et al. 2013; Armstrong et al.
68
2013). The Ekwan River Formation is characterized by fossiliferous limestones and fine-grained
69
dolostones, and the upper portion of this unit is interpreted to be coeval with the overlying
70
reefal carbonates of the Attawapiskat Formation (Norris 1993b).
71
Le Fèvre et al. (1976) proposed four provisional conodont assemblage zones and one
72
formal conodont zone for the Silurian succession of the Hudson Bay Basin. Zhang and Barnes
73
(2007) provided the most recent conodont biostratigraphic data for the Hudson Bay Basin and
74
erected three interval zones and one assemblage zone. During the last two decades there have
75
been significant revisions to the taxonomy and ranges of conodonts used for biostratigraphic
76
zonation of the lower Silurian (Fig. 3), and these zonations will be used throughout this
77
manuscript (Männik 1998, 2007a, 2007b).
78
Carbonate carbon (δ
13
C
carb
) isotope chemostratigraphy has become a robust method for
79
high-resolution global correlation of Silurian strata (Cramer et al. 2011; Melchin et al. 2012).
80
Three positive carbonate carbon (δ
13
C
carb
) isotope excursions have been documented from
81
Llandovery strata and one from Sheinwoodian (Wenlock) strata that are useful for global
82
correlation (Fig. 3): lower Aeronian, upper Aeronian, lower Telychian (Valgu), and
83
Sheinwoodian (Ireviken) excursions. Each of these excursions has been documented from
84
multiple paleobasins (Kaljo and Martma 2000; Kaljo et al. 2003; Põldvere 2003; Melchin and
85
Holmden 2006; Munnecke and Männik 2009). Previously, no chemostratigraphic data were
86
available from the Hudson Platform. Here we provide integrated biochemostratigraphic data
87
from the Victor Mine (V-03-270-AH) core in the Moose River Basin.
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Figures (6)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Seth A. Young1, Emily Benayoun1, Nevin P. Kozik1, Olle Hints2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: It is well documented that Upper Ordovician and Silurian successions record multiple marine turnover events – including the second-largest mass extinction in the Phanerozoic – widespread glaciation, and multiple global carbon cycle perturbations. Whereas causal mechanisms for the Late Ordovician major mass extinction event involving climate, paleoceanographic variation, and δ13C records have been published, similar records remain poorly constrained for subsequent extinction events in the early Silurian. Here, we present new organic matter carbon isotope (δ13Corg) chemostratigraphy and corresponding paleoredox proxies (Fe speciation, [Mn, V, Mo], and pyrite sulfur isotopes) from two organic-rich drill core sections in Sweden and Latvia that span the upper Katian through lower Wenlock stages (446–431 Ma). Pyritized Fe and bulk sedimentary Mn concentrations from Upper Ordovician strata in southern Sweden suggest a local redox shift to more reducing conditions in the late Hirnantian, possibly including euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic water column) conditions that coincide with the second mass extinction pulse. The new high-resolution δ13Corg and δ34Spyr datasets from the late Aeronian (early Silurian) interval within both drill cores show positive excursions that are broadly coincident with the associated Sandvika and sedgwickii extinction events. Independently, Fe speciation and bulk sedimentary trace metal data from this late Aeronian interval record locally euxinic conditions in both the deep basinal (Sweden) and distal shelf (Latvia) settings before and during the late Aeronian positive δ13C excursion. This multiproxy paleoredox dataset provides the first direct evidence for local to regional expansion of reducing marine conditions coincident with this early Silurian (late Aeronian) biotic event and positive δ13C excursion. Additionally, new δ34Spyr values spanning the Llandovery/Wenlock boundary interval in the Latvia core show a positive excursion coincident with Fe speciation and trace metal enrichments that imply a local redox perturbation with intermittently euxinic bottom waters during the rising limb of the Ireviken positive δ13C excursion. The combination of these geochemical data for local- to regional-scale (more data required for global interpretations) changes in marine redox conditions with paleobiological records and evidence for eustatic sea-level rise indicate that environmental stresses related to an expansion of anoxic to euxinic conditions were a probable driver for several extinction events during the latest Ordovician–early Silurian.

15 citations


Cites background from "Silurian conodont biostratigraphy a..."

  • ...…are coincident with the late Aeronian, early Telychian, and Llandovery-Wenlock boundary biotic events (Kaljo and Martma, 2000; Kaljo et al., 2003; Cramer and Saltzman, 2005, 2007; Melchin and Holmden, 2006; Fryda and Storch, 2014; Bancroft et al., 2015; Waid and Cramer, 2017; McAdams et al., 2017)....

    [...]

  • ...2 and 4) has been labeled as the globally recognized Valgu CIE (e.g., Munnecke and Mannik, 2009; Bancroft et al., 2015; Waid and Cramer, 2017)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Natalia Walasek1, David K. Loydell1, Jiří Frýda2, Peep Männik3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: A revised graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy together with new organic carbon isotope data for the middle Aeronian to lower Telychian (Llandovery, lower Silurian) of Kallholn quarry, central Sweden, are presented. The base of the section is marked by an unconformity between the Ordovician Boda Limestone and Aeronian shales with limestone nodules belonging to the Pribylograptus leptotheca Biozone. These are overlain by strata assigned to the lower Lituigraptus convolutus Biozone. The Stimulograptus sedgwickii Biozone, previously recorded from the section, is absent and marked by an unconformity which is overlain by radiolarian-rich graptolitic shales belonging to the Stimulograptus halli Biozone. The overlying Telychian strata are assigned to the Spirograptus guerichi, Spirograptus turriculatus and Streptograptus crispus biozones. Conodonts indicate that the boundary between the Distomodus staurognathoides Biozone and Pterospathodus eopennatus Superzone lies within the Sp. turriculatus Biozone, as it does also in the Ohesaare core, Estonia. The δ13Corg record shows mostly minor fluctuations but with a distinct twin-peaked positive excursion in the upper Sp. turriculatus Biozone, close to the boundary with the overlying Streptograptus crispus Biozone. The excursion in the Kallholn section may correlate with the earliest positive shift in δ13C values at the onset of the excursion associated with the Valgu Event or it may represent a new excursion (provisionally named the Kallholn excursion) preceding this. Many more bentonites (36) occur in the section than previously recorded – geochemical studies are needed to confirm whether the Osmundsberg bentonite (which may or may not be equivalent to the “O” bed in Estonia and Latvia) is present.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Abstract Extensive drilling of the Tango Extension kimberlite pipe resulted in the construction of an emplacement model that revealed the complex architecture of two amalgamated pipes: an older pipe, the Tango Extension Deep, which is cut along its northern margin by the smaller Tango Extension pipe. The resulting volcano forms a complex pipe-in-pipe structure called the Tango Extension Super Structure. The emplacement of the Tango Extension Super Structure sequence indicates prolonged hiatuses, which, similar to other volcanoes classified as monogenetic, puts the classical monogenetic and polygenetic definitions of maar-diatreme volcanoes to the test. Although the Tango Extension and Tango Extension Deep volcanoes could be characterized individually as monogenetic volcanoes, the Tango Extension Super Structure shows evidence of the occurrence of the significant hiatuses typical of polygenetic volcanoes. We suggest that hiatuses that are long enough to consolidate earlier tephra unambiguously differentiate polygenetic from monogenetic maar-diatreme volcanoes.

8 citations


Cites background from "Silurian conodont biostratigraphy a..."

  • ...The Attawapiskat–Ekwan River interface occurs at a depth of c. 130 m from the present day land surface and the Ekwan River–Severn River interface at a depth of c. 200 m (Bancroft et al. 2015)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Christopher R. Barnes1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In the Canadian part of Laurentia, large systematic conodont collections were assembled by many specialists over recent decades primarily for lower Paleozoic biostratigraphy, with some having sampling strategies to test ecologic hypotheses. The Laurentian plate straddled the paleoequator and accumulated extensive carbonate deposits, amenable to conodont recovery. In particular, the glaciated and mountainous Canadian part of Laurentia has permitted extensive collections through well-exposed shelf-to-basin transects across continental margins of the Appalachian, Cordilleran and Innuitian (Arctic) orogens, as well as intracratonic sedimentary basins and foreland basins affected by tectonism. From these remarkable settings, integrated studies by specialists of biostratigraphy, evolution, paleoecology, and paleobiogeography, together with oxygen, strontium and neodymium isotope analyses of conodont hard tissues, have involved nearly 700,000 conodonts from over 8000 samples from relatively undeformed stratigraphic sections. The results, with stratigraphic and sedimentologic data, have enabled interpretations of early Paleozoic climatic, oceanographic and eustatic changes and effects of tectonism. The late Cambrian-Early Ordovician exhibits the origin of euconodonts and initial diversification of coniform and ramiform apparatuses. By Middle Ordovician more complex apparatuses evolved with pectiniform (P) elements, with more complex community organization. Responses to sea-level changes can be tracked on both sides of the paleoequator from Cordilleran and Appalachian collections. Middle-Late Ordovician experienced extensive transgressive events, wider carbonate platforms, and the paleogeographic influence of residual Precambrian basement highs that partitioned conodonts into subprovinces. Restricted circulation and hypersalinity in these epeiric seas fostered specialized inshore communities with neurodonts and rhipidognathids. Terminal Ordovician mass extinction event (Gondwanan glaciation) affected forms with elaborate apparatuses whereas many coniform species survived. Slow radiation within the early Rhuddanian (early Silurian) produced community restructuring followed by progressive diversity increase punctuated by minor extinctions, some related to Gondwanan glacial re-advances. Oxygen isotopes show brief paleotemperature perturbations correlated to named episodes and events. Post-Rhuddanian conodont communities were well-defined, laterally segregated, with weak provincialism, and affected by oceanographic events and cratonic amalgamation with closure of the Iapetus Ocean and docking of Baltica, Avalonia and Pearya against Laurentia.

8 citations


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"Silurian conodont biostratigraphy a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Sediment deposition and faunal distribution during this time were controlled by a northeast-trending Precambrian basement high, the Cape Henrietta Maria Arch (Patricia Arch of Nelson and Johnson 1966), which separated two cratonic sedimentary basins: the Hudson Bay Basin (to the north) and the Moose River Basin (to the south). Silurian stratigraphy of the Hudson Platform has been summarized by Norris (1993a, 1993b), Sanford et al. (1993), and Norford (1997)....

    [...]


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