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Journal ArticleDOI

Simplified chemical deposition technique for good quality SnS thin films

01 Feb 1991-Semiconductor Science and Technology (IOP Publishing)-Vol. 6, Iss: 2, pp 132-134
TL;DR: In this article, a chemical deposition technique, much simpler and more versatile than previously reported and capable of yielding good quality SnS films of thickness up to approximately 1.2 mu m under a choice of deposition conditions, is presented.
Abstract: A chemical deposition technique, much simpler and more versatile than previously reported and capable of yielding good quality SnS films of thickness up to approximately=1.2 mu m under a choice of deposition conditions, is presented. The as-prepared films are polycrystalline with p-type dark conductivity in the range 10-5-10-4 Omega -1 cm-1 for the thicker ( approximately 1 mu m) films and showing a photocurrent to dark current ratio of 5-10 under 500 W m-2 tungsten halogen illumination. The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra and the photocurrent response curves of a series of SnS samples are explicitly presented to provide insight into possible applications of these films.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors have described in detail, chemical bath deposition method of metal chalcogenide thin films, it is capable of yielding good quality thin films and their preparative parameters, structural, optical, electrical properties etc.

733 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a mixture of SnCl4 with H2S at 300−545 °C was used for the deposition of SnS2, SnS3, and SnSS3.
Abstract: Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of SnS2, Sn2S3, and SnS has been achieved onto glass substrates from the reaction of SnCl4 with H2S at 300−545 °C. The films show good uniformity and surface coverage, adherence, and a variety of colors (black, yellow, brown, and gray) dependent on deposition temperature and film thickness. Growth rates were on the order of 1−2 μm min-1. All the films were crystalline. For substrate temperatures of up to 500 °C single phase films with the hexagonal SnS2 structure (a = 3.65(1) A, c = 5.88(1) A) were formed. At 525 °C a film of mixed composition containing predominantly orthorhombic Sn2S3 (a = 8.83(1) A, b = 3.76(1) A, c = 14.03(1) A) was formed together with some SnS2. At 545 °C films with orthorhombic SnS structure (a = 4.30(1) A, b = 11.20(1) A, c = 3.99(1) A) were formed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a variety of different film thicknesses and morphologies, including needles, plates, and ovoids, dependent on the deposition temperature and tim...

381 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a single-phase tin monosulfide (SnS) film was obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N-iPr)2)2] and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 °C).
Abstract: Thin film solar cells made from earth-abundant, non-toxic materials are needed to replace the current technology that uses Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 and CdTe, which contain scarce and toxic elements. One promising candidate absorber material is tin monosulfide (SnS). In this report, pure, stoichiometric, single-phase SnS films were obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N-iPr)2)2] and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 °C). The direct optical band gap of SnS is around 1.3 eV and strong optical absorption (α > 104 cm−1) is observed throughout the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The films are p-type semiconductors with carrier concentration on the order of 1016 cm−3 and hole mobility 0.82–15.3 cm2V−1s−1 in the plane of the films. The electrical properties are anisotropic, with three times higher mobility in the direction through the film, compared to the in-plane direction.

378 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the synthesis and characterization of single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material.
Abstract: Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization of the single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material. We show that the coexistence of the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states would limit the performance of SnS in photovoltaic devices due to the valence band alignment of the respective phases and the “asymmetry” in the underlying point defect behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that Sn2S3, in addition to SnS, is a candidate material for low-cost thin-film solar cells.

369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review looks beyond MAPI to other ns2 solar absorbers, with the aim of identifying those materials likely to achieve high efficiencies, and discusses the ideal properties essential to produce highly efficient solar cells.

358 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that atmospheric absorption causes a shift in the solar spectrum which changes the value of the optimum forbidden energy gap between the limits 1.2 ev < 1.6 ev.
Abstract: The theory of the photovoltaic effect is used to predict the characteristics of a semiconductor which would operate with an optimum efficiency as a photovoltaic solar energy converter. The existence of such an optimum material results from the interaction between the optical properties of the semiconductor which determine what fraction of the solar spectrum is utilized and its electrical properties which determine the maximum efficiency of conversion into electricity. Considerable attention is devoted to the effect of the forbidden energy gap (EG) of the semiconductor. It is shown that atmospheric absorption causes a shift in the solar spectrum which changes the value of the optimum forbidden energy gap between the limits 1.2 ev

879 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theory for the design of silicon solar energy converters commonly known as the Bell solar battery is given in this paper.Theoretical relations based on a simple model are compared with experimental data and compared with the theoretical relations.
Abstract: Theory is given for the design of silicon solar energy converters commonly known as the Bell Solar Battery. Values are given for the various parameters in the design theory. Experimental data are presented and compared with the theoretical relations based on a simple model.It is found that with present techniques, units can be made with up to 6 percent efficiency in the conversion of solar radiant energy to electrical energy. An important factor in obtaining such high efficiencies is the reduction of the series resistance of the cell to as low a value as possible.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a range of combination of rsquare operator approximately 30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately 1 to 65 and a color of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH.
Abstract: CuxS thin films with a wide range of sheet resistances (rSquare Operator ) and optical transmittance (T%), indicating different composition x, have been obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH (10-12). Depending on the deposition parameters, a range of combination of rSquare Operator approximately=30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately=1 to 65 and a range of colour of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained. The films have been found to be stable with respect to electrical and optical properties on storage under ambient. Various possible large area applications such as in architectural glazing, photothermal and photovoltaic conversions are discussed.

168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mechanism of photoconductivity in polycrystalline CdS has been studied over the temperature range 100-300 K using Hall effect and conductivity measurements in the dark and under white light illumination.
Abstract: The mechanism of photoconductivity in polycrystalline CdS has been studied over the temperature range 100–300 K using Hall‐effect and conductivity measurements in the dark and under white light illumination Samples were prepared in thin film form by spray pyrolysis and as power‐binder mixtures Dark conductivities covered the range 10−9–101 Ω−1 cm−1 Dark conductivity is interpreted in terms of a two‐dimensional version of the grain‐boundary barrier model developed by Seto for polycrystalline Si Except at very low carrier densities, Hall mobilities are found to be thermally activated, and intergrain barrier heights φb are derived for spray pyrolysis layers with doping levels covering the range N = 1014–1018 cm−3 A maximum barrier φbmax ≊02 Ev is found at a corresponding doping level, Nmax ≊2×1016 cm−3, which represents the situation where the barrier depletion layers just extend through the whole grain From this we derive a mean grain diameter of 03 μm in good agreement with the result of transmissi

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The photoelectric properties of these first polycrystalline pyrite samples studied are poor, but there is presently no reason to assume that they cannot be developed as mentioned in this paper, and the photoelectric property of these samples is unknown.
Abstract: Polycrystalline layers of As‐doped pyrite have been produced in bromine atmosphere with the aim of developing this sulfide material for solar energy applications. Its photoelectrochemical behavior in contact with an aqueous electrolyte was investigated. It operated as a photoelectrochemical solar cell and showed reasonably stable behavior under illumination. Optical measurements performed on show that visible light is absorbed in an extremely thin layer of 160A in spite of the apparently indirect gap of this semiconductor . This would make this photosensitive material an interesting candidate for thin‐layer solar cells. Scanning electron micrographs of the samples reveal well‐developed crystallites of about 5–10 μm with distinct boundaries. Scanning laser spot analysis over macroscopic areas (5 mm) showed homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous regions. The photoelectric properties of these first polycrystalline pyrite samples studied are poor, but there is presently no reason to assume that they cannot be developed.

156 citations