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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Simulation and Analysis of Actuation Voltage of Electrostatically Actuated RF MEMS Cantilever and Fixed – Fixed Switches with Variable Beam Parameters

TL;DR: In this article, the simulation and analysis of RF MEMS cantilever beam and fixed-fixed beam switches are presented, and the simulation results show that the Cantilever and fixed fixed beams follow approximately similar deflection pattern with fixed fixed beam deflecting more for applied actuation voltage in all the studies.
Abstract: Radio Frequency (RF) Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches are becoming more and more popular in the electronics industry. The main concern in using RF MEMS switch is its high actuation voltage. Thus the main focus in this paper is to obtain low actuation voltage. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of RF MEMS cantilever beam and Fixed – Fixed beam switches. RF MEMS switches simulated in this paper use electrostatic actuation method. Simulations were done using finite element modeling. Different designs and parameters such as gap between electrodes, beam thickness, beam length, and relative permittivity values of medium between electrodes were chosen for analyzing the deflection of beams for various actuation voltages. Perforations of different dimensions were made on both type of beams and the resulted deflections were studied. The simulation results show that the Cantilever and Fixed – Fixed beams follow approximately similar deflection pattern with Cantilever beam deflecting more for applied actuation voltage in all the studies.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors concentrate on the analysis and simulation of RF MEMS metal contact switch having a n-shaped cantilever beam to obtain the low actuation voltage.
Abstract: Nowadays, Radio Frequency (RF) Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches are getting more popular in the electronics field. Since consumption of power has become the highest concern in many electronics devices. The main problem for using RF MEMS switches is its high actuation voltage. Thus this paper generally concentrate on the analysis and simulation of RF MEMS metal contact switch having a n-shaped cantilever beam to obtain the low actuation voltage. Simulations are done using the finite element modelling. Intellisuite 8.7v software have been used to get the results of the switch. The design has been revised in terms of thickness of the beam and air gap to carry out electrostatic actuation mechanism. The pull-in voltage is obtained to be 2.6 V.

4 citations


Cites background from "Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..."

  • ...The switching time of the beam has two parameters; the closing time which depends upon the pull-in voltage and the releasing time which relies upon material’s properties of the beam [8]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of technology scaling in the performance of electrical parameters of NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Switch) devices in switching applications has been discussed by modeling a typical Cantilever NEMS with fixed dimensions using Matlab simulation tool and then varying its beam parameters to characterize the effect on pull in voltage.
Abstract: This paper discusses the effect of technology scaling in the performance of electrical parameters of NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Switch) devices in switching applications. This has been done by modeling a typical Cantilever NEMS with fixed dimensions using Matlab simulation tool and then varying its beam parameters to characterize the effect on pull in voltage. The reference model of 65 nm technology provides a pull in voltage of 0.9 V. This paper examines the possibility of minimization of beam dimensions, simultaneous effects on electrical parameters of the beam and range of mechanical delay that can be afforded to improve the switching performance. Physical structure of Cantilever and Suspended NEMS have been created using Coventorware Simulation tool. Mathematical model ensures fast switching with technology scaling whereas Coventorware implementation proves the possibility of minimization of pull in without considering the ratio of dimensions.

Cites background from "Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..."

  • ...The voltage at which this snap down occurs is called pull in voltage ( [14]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the basics of RF MEMS and how to design practical devices and circuits are discussed, as well as expert tips for designers and a range of real-world applications.
Abstract: From the Publisher: Practical and theoretical coverage of RF MEMS for circuits and devices New RF and microwave frequency MEMS (microeletromechanical systems) have potentially enormous and widespread applications in the telecommunications industry. Components based on this technology–such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters–exhibit virtually no power consumption or loss, making them ideally suited for use in modern telecommunications and wireless devices. This book sets out the basics of RF MEMS and describes how to design practical devices and circuits. As well as covering fundamentals, Gabriel Rebeiz offers expert tips for designers and presents a range of real-world applications. Throughout, the author utilizes actual engineering examples to illustrate basic principles in theory and practice. Detailed discussion of cutting-edge fabrication and packaging techniques is provided. Suitable as a tutorial for electrical and computer engineering students, or as an up-to-date reference for practicing circuit designers, RF MEMS provides the most comprehensive available survey of this new and important technology. Author Biography: Gabriel M. Rebeiz received his PhD from the California Institute of Technology, and is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. In 1991 he was the recipient of the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, and in 2000 was the corecipient of the IEEE Microwave Prize. A Fellow of the IEEE and a consultant to Rockwell, Samsung, Intel, Standard MEMS, and Agilent, he has published extensively in the field of microwave technology and in the area of RF MEMS.

1,895 citations


"Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The actuation voltage is given by [1]....

    [...]

  • ...The electrostatic actuation is the result of a parallel plate capacitance formed between the Fixed Electrode and Movable Electrode....

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  • ...The resultant electrostatic force F pulls in the Movable Electrode [1]....

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  • ...The spring constant of beam is given by [1]....

    [...]

  • ...In the RF integrated circuit, MEMS switches replace the conventional GaAs FET and p-i-n diode switches because of their low power consumption, low insertion loss, high isolation, light weight, high reliability etc [1]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an improved model is introduced, considering simultaneously axial stress, residual stress, and fringing-field effect of the fixed-fixed bridge structure of RF MEMS switches.
Abstract: With the recent rapid growth of Radio Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF MEMS) switches, there has developed an emergent requirement for more accurate theoretical models to predict their electromechanical behaviors. Many parameters exist in the analysis of the behavior of the switch, and it is inconvenient for further study. In this paper, an improved model is introduced, considering simultaneously axial stress, residual stress, and fringing-field effect of the fixed-fixed bridge structure. To avoid any unnecessary repetitive model tests and numerical simulation for RF MEMS switches, some dimensionless numbers are derived by making governing equation dimensionless. The electromechanical behavior of the fixed-fixed bridge structure of RF MEMS switches is totally determined by these dimensionless numbers.

114 citations


"Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Many have created models to analyze the switches for low voltage switching [8][9]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents the robust design optimization of an RF-MEMS direct contact cantilever switch for minimum actuation voltage and opening time, and maximum power handling capability, using a Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm.
Abstract: This paper presents the robust design optimization of an RF-MEMS direct contact cantilever switch for minimum actuation voltage and opening time, and maximum power handling capability. The design variables are the length and thickness of the entire cantilever, the widths of the sections of the cantilever, and the dimple size. The actuation voltage is obtained using a 3-D structural-electrostatic finite-element method (FEM) model, and the opening time is obtained using the same FEM model and the experimental model of adhesion at the contact surfaces developed in our previous work. The model accounts for an unpredictable variance in the contact resistance resulting from the micromachining process for the estimation of the power handling. This is achieved by taking the ratio of the root mean square power of the RF current (ldquosignalrdquo) passing through the switch to the contact temperature (ldquonoiserdquo) resulting from the possible range of the contact resistance. The resulting robust optimization problem is solved using a Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm, to obtain design alternatives exhibiting different tradeoffs among the three objectives. The results show that there exists substantial room for improved designs of RF-MEMS direct-contact switches. It also provides a better understanding of the key factors contributing to the performances of RF-MEMS switches. Most importantly, it provides guidance for further improvements of RF-MEMS switches that exploit complex multiphysics phenomena.

43 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on recent progress in reducing the actuation voltage of RF switches with an emphasis on a modular approach that gives acceptable design parameters, and a number of rules that should be considered in design and fabrication of low actuation RF MEMS switches are suggested.
Abstract: Radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems (RF MEMS) have enabled a new generation of devices that bring many advantages due to their very high performances. There are many incentives for the integration of the RF MEMS switches and electronic devices on the same chip. However, the high actuation voltage of RF MEMS switches compared to electronic devices poses a major problem. By reducing the actuation voltage of the RF MEMS switch, it is possible to integrate it into current electronic devices. Lowering the actuation voltage will have an impact on RF parameters of the RF MEMS switches. This investigation focuses on recent progress in reducing the actuation voltage with an emphasis on a modular approach that gives acceptable design parameters. A number of rules that should be considered in design and fabrication of low actuation RF MEMS switches are suggested.

28 citations


"Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The fourth type is Electrostatic actuation and is most prevalent technique in use today due to its virtually zero power consumption, small electrode size, relatively short switching time [3]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Nov 2001
TL;DR: In this article, two closed-form algebraic models describing electrostatic latch and release of micro cantilever beams are presented, based on beam theory with a fixed moment at the boundary to represent the electrostatic force and it predicts that electrostatic pull-in occurs at a beam tip displacement of 46% the initial actuator gap.
Abstract: Two closed form algebraic models describing electrostatic latch and release of micro cantilever beams are presented. The 1st model is based on beam theory with a fixed moment at the boundary to represent the electrostatic force and it predicts that electrostatic pull-in occurs at a beam tip displacement of 46% the initial actuator gap. The 2nd model uses a rigid beam pinned at the anchor with a spring equivalent to the beam's mechanical restoring force attached to the tip and describes electrostatic pull-in occurring at a beam tip deflection of 44% the initial actuator gap. Pull-in voltage measurements of polysilicon cantilever beam arrays (6mm wide, 2mm thick, 160 mm long) correlate to both the 1st and 2nd presented models with errors of 8.2% ((sigma) equals1.3%), and 4.9% ((sigma) equals1.4%), respectively. The 1st and 2nd models were observed to improve pull-in voltage prediction by at least 10.3% and 13.7% respectively when compared to previously presented models without the use of empirical correction factors.

27 citations


"Simulation and Analysis of Actuatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The material of beam is aluminium and surrounding medium is air [5]....

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  • ...Above the pull in voltage, the beam becomes unstable [5]....

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