Abstract: Higher-order topological phases give rise to new bulk and boundary physics, as well as new classes of topological phase transitions. While the realization of higher-order topological phases has been confirmed in many platforms by detecting the existence of gapless boundary modes, a direct determination of the higher-order topology and related topological phase transitions through the bulk in experiments has still been lacking. To bridge the gap, in this work we carry out the simulation of a two-dimensional second-order topological phase in a superconducting qubit. Owing to the great flexibility and controllability of the quantum simulator, we observe the realization of higher-order topology directly through the measurement of the pseudo-spin texture in momentum space of the bulk for the first time, in sharp contrast to previous experiments based on the detection of gapless boundary modes in real space. Also through the measurement of the evolution of pseudo-spin texture with parameters, we further observe novel topological phase transitions from the second-order topological phase to the trivial phase, as well as to the first-order topological phase with nonzero Chern number. Our work sheds new light on the study of higher-order topological phases and topological phase transitions.

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Topics: Texture (cosmology) (57%), Boundary (topology) (56%), Phase transition (52%) ... read more

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20 results found

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Abstract: Theorists have discovered topological insulators that are insulating in their interior and on their surfaces but have conducting channels at corners or along edges.

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Topics: Topological insulator (68%)

301 Citations

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Abstract: The combination of spin-orbit coupling with interactions results in many exotic phases of matter. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting pairing instability of the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling within the mean-field level at both zero and finite temperature. We find that both first- and second-order time-reversal symmetry breaking topological gapped phases can be achieved under appropriate parameters and temperature regimes due to the presence of a favored even-parity s+id-wave pairing even in the absence of an external magnetic field or intrinsic magnetism. This results in two branches of chiral Majorana edge states on each edge or a single zero-energy Majorana corner state at each corner of the sample. Interestingly, we also find that not only does tuning the doping level lead to a direct topological phase transition between these two distinct topological gapped phases, but also using the temperature as a highly controllable and reversible tuning knob leads to different direct temperature-driven topological phase transitions between gapped and gapless topological superconducting phases. Our findings suggest new possibilities in interacting spin-orbit coupled systems by unifying both first- and higher-order topological superconductors in a simple but realistic microscopic model.

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Topics: Topological order (68%), Hubbard model (56%), Phase transition (53%) ... read more

23 Citations

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Abstract: Second-order topological insulators are crystalline insulators with a gapped bulk and gapped crystalline boundaries, but with topologically protected gapless states at the intersection of two boundaries. Without further spatial symmetries, five of the ten Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classes allow for the existence of such second-order topological insulators in two and three dimensions. We show that reflection symmetry can be employed to systematically generate examples of second-order topological insulators and superconductors, although the topologically protected states at corners (in two dimensions) or at crystal edges (in three dimensions) continue to exist if reflection symmetry is broken. A three-dimensional second-order topological insulator with broken time-reversal symmetry shows a Hall conductance quantized in units of e^{2}/h.

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Topics: Topological insulator (66%), Reflection symmetry (59%), Symmetry (geometry) (51%) ... read more

18 Citations

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Abstract: This review article summarizes the requirement of low temperature conditions in existing experimental approaches to quantum computation and quantum simulation.

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Topics: Quantum computer (75%), Quantum simulator (74%)

17 Citations

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Abstract: Majorana bound states often occur at the end of a 1D topological superconductor. Validated by a new bulk invariant and an intuitive edge argument, we show the emergence of one Majorana Kramers pair at each corner of a square-shaped 2D topological insulator proximitized by an s_{±}-wave (e.g., Fe-based) superconductor. We obtain a phase diagram that addresses the relaxation of crystal symmetry and edge orientation. We propose two experimental realizations in candidate materials. Our scheme offers a higher-order and higher-temperature route for exploring non-Abelian quasiparticles.

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Topics: Topological insulator (59%), MAJORANA (58%)

14 Citations

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89 results found

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Abstract: Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. These states are possible due to the combination of spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry. The two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator, which is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator supports novel spin-polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface. In this Colloquium the theoretical foundation for topological insulators and superconductors is reviewed and recent experiments are described in which the signatures of topological insulators have been observed. Transport experiments on $\mathrm{Hg}\mathrm{Te}∕\mathrm{Cd}\mathrm{Te}$ quantum wells are described that demonstrate the existence of the edge states predicted for the quantum spin Hall insulator. Experiments on ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{1\ensuremath{-}x}{\mathrm{Sb}}_{x}$, ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Se}}_{3}$, ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$, and ${\mathrm{Sb}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$ are then discussed that establish these materials as 3D topological insulators and directly probe the topology of their surface states. Exotic states are described that can occur at the surface of a 3D topological insulator due to an induced energy gap. A magnetic gap leads to a novel quantum Hall state that gives rise to a topological magnetoelectric effect. A superconducting energy gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions and may provide a new venue for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation. Prospects for observing these exotic states are also discussed, as well as other potential device applications of topological insulators.

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Topics: Topological insulator (60%), Topological order (58%), Symmetry protected topological order (55%) ... read more

12,967 Citations

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Abstract: Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter which cannot be adiabatically connected to conventional insulators and semiconductors. They are characterized by a full insulating gap in the bulk and gapless edge or surface states which are protected by time-reversal symmetry. These topological materials have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in a variety of systems, including HgTe quantum wells, BiSb alloys, and Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 crystals. Theoretical models, materials properties, and experimental results on two-dimensional and three-dimensional topological insulators are reviewed, and both the topological band theory and the topological field theory are discussed. Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions. The theory of topological superconductors is reviewed, in close analogy to the theory of topological insulators.

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Topics: Topological order (73%), Symmetry protected topological order (71%), Topological insulator (70%) ... read more

9,145 Citations

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Abstract: We systematically study topological phases of insulators and superconductors (or superfluids) in three spatial dimensions. We find that there exist three-dimensional (3D) topologically nontrivial insulators or superconductors in five out of ten symmetry classes introduced in seminal work by Altland and Zirnbauer within the context of random matrix theory, more than a decade ago. One of these is the recently introduced ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}$ topological insulator in the symplectic (or spin-orbit) symmetry class. We show that there exist precisely four more topological insulators. For these systems, all of which are time-reversal invariant in three dimensions, the space of insulating ground states satisfying certain discrete symmetry properties is partitioned into topological sectors that are separated by quantum phase transitions. Three of the above five topologically nontrivial phases can be realized as time-reversal invariant superconductors. In these the different topological sectors are characterized by an integer winding number defined in momentum space. When such 3D topological insulators are terminated by a two-dimensional surface, they support a number (which may be an arbitrary nonvanishing even number for singlet pairing) of Dirac fermion (Majorana fermion when spin-rotation symmetry is completely broken) surface modes which remain gapless under arbitrary perturbations of the Hamiltonian that preserve the characteristic discrete symmetries, including disorder. In particular, these surface modes completely evade Anderson localization from random impurities. These topological phases can be thought of as three-dimensional analogs of well-known paired topological phases in two spatial dimensions such as the spinless chiral $({p}_{x}\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}i{p}_{y})$-wave superconductor (or Moore-Read Pfaffian state). In the corresponding topologically nontrivial (analogous to ``weak pairing'') and topologically trivial (analogous to ``strong pairing'') 3D phases, the wave functions exhibit markedly distinct behavior. When an electromagnetic U(1) gauge field and fluctuations of the gap functions are included in the dynamics, the superconducting phases with nonvanishing winding number possess nontrivial topological ground-state degeneracies.

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Topics: Topological order (65%), Topological quantum number (65%), Symmetry protected topological order (64%) ... read more

2,166 Citations

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Ching-Kai Chiu^{1}, Jeffrey C. Y. Teo^{2}, Andreas P. Schnyder^{3}, Shinsei Ryu^{4}•Institutions (4)

Abstract: In recent years an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to quantum materials with topological characteristics that are robust against disorder and other perturbations. In this context it was discovered that topological materials can be classified with respect to their dimension and symmetry properties. This review provides an overview of the classification schemes of both fully gapped and gapless topological materials and gives a pedagogical introduction into the field of topological band theory.

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Topics: Topological degeneracy (71%), Symmetry protected topological order (71%), Topological entropy in physics (70%) ... read more

1,478 Citations

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Abstract: A quantum computer can solve hard problems, such as prime factoring, database searching and quantum simulation, at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection by distributing a logical state among many physical quantum bits (qubits) by means of quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is a useful phenomenon in this regard, because it allows the construction of large quantum circuits and is compatible with microfabrication. For superconducting qubits, the surface code approach to quantum computing is a natural choice for error correction, because it uses only nearest-neighbour coupling and rapidly cycled entangling gates. The gate fidelity requirements are modest: the per-step fidelity threshold is only about 99 per cent. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in a superconducting multi-qubit processor, achieving an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.92 per cent and a two-qubit gate fidelity of up to 99.4 per cent. This places Josephson quantum computing at the fault-tolerance threshold for surface code error correction. Our quantum processor is a first step towards the surface code, using five qubits arranged in a linear array with nearest-neighbour coupling. As a further demonstration, we construct a five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using the complete circuit and full set of gates. The results demonstrate that Josephson quantum computing is a high-fidelity technology, with a clear path to scaling up to large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum circuits.

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Topics: Quantum error correction (76%), Quantum technology (72%), Quantum network (72%) ... read more

1,457 Citations