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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/263/2/022011

Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

01 Nov 2017-Vol. 263, Iss: 2, pp 022011
Abstract: Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100A). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments' masses analyses.

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Topics: Tartrazine (58%), Natural dye (54%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2174/1573401315666190717122120
Abstract: The color of food products is one of the most important factors proposed by the consumer. Therefore, incorporation of coloring agents into food dates back to ancient times. Nowadays, various types of synthetic dyes are produced and widely used as part of formulations of food products to increase customer’s interest As the safety of this material is questionable, many of them are banned, or the level of their use is limited by the authorities. Among them, saffron is the only food color permitted for use in Nabat as a traditional rock candy which is mostly consumed in Iran. Therefore, the current investigation was aimed to determine the levels of artificial colors in traditional hard candy (Nabat) manufactured by organized and unorganized sectors distributed in Tehran. In this regard, 137 samples, (68 samples from unorganized sector and 69 samples from the organized sector), were collected in summer 2016. Analysis of samples was done according to the Iranian national standard through thin layer chromatography method. Also, the High-performance thin layer chromatography was used for reanalyzing five samples. Findings showed that 64.7% of unorganized rock candy contained artificial food colors that 26.53% of these dyes are banned. About 5.8% of samples from the organized sector contained synthetic dyes that 25% of them are forbidden. The most commonly used color in both groups was defined as quinoline yellow. The high percentage of synthetic food color usage in unorganized sectors urges the necessity to control them, especially the incorporation of synthetic food dyes in Nabat. Therefore, the training providers and consumers and the monitoring of the production, have encouraged the manufacturers to develop and deploy health professionals and health license.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TALANTA.2007.09.015
15 Feb 2008-Talanta
Abstract: Forty synthetic food colors were determined in drinks and candies by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The following food colors were analyzed within 19 min using a short analytical column (50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 microm) at 50 degrees C with gradient elution: Ponceau 6R, Tartrazine, Fast yellow AB, Amaranth, Indigotine, Naphthol yellow S, Chrysoine, Ponceau 4R, Sunset yellow FCF, Red 10B, Orange G, Acid violet 7, Brilliant black PN, Allura red AC, Yellow 2G, Red 2G, Uranine, Fast red E, Green S, Ponceau 2R, Azorubine, Orange I, Quinoline yellow, Martius yellow, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Fast green FCF, Eosine, Brilliant blue FCF, Orange II, Orange RN, Acid blue 1, Erythrosine, Amido black 10B, Acid red 52, Patent blue V, Acid green 9, Phloxine B, Benzyl violet 4B, and Rose bengal. The recoveries of these compounds added to soft drinks and candies at 5 microg/g ranged from 76.6 to 115.0%, and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were within 6.0%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 microg/g, respectively.

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Topics: Ponceau 3R (69%), Ponceau 2R (67%), Sunset Yellow FCF (66%) ...read more

251 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRAC.2004.09.004
Abstract: Azo dyes, extensively used for coloring a variety of consumer goods, such as leather, clothes, food, and toys, can under certain conditions be reduced to form confirmed or suspected carcinogenic aromatic amines. This article gives an overview of the state of development of analytical procedures for the determination of such azo dyes, which are banned by the European Commission.

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200 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2015.07.085
01 Feb 2016-Food Chemistry
Abstract: A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented.

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Topics: Food industry (54%)

191 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00759-6
Qing-chuan Chen1, Shifen Mou1, Xiao-ping Hou1, John M. Riviello2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Eight synthetic food colorants (Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Indigo Carmine, New Red, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Allura Red) were determined by high-performance ion chromatography on an anion-exchange analytical column with very low hydrophobicity and visible absorbance detection. Gradient elution with hydrochloric acid-acetonitrile effected both the chromatographic separation of these colorants and the on-line clean-up of the analytical column, which was very advantageous for routine analysis. High-performance ion chromatography may be a solution to the chromatographic analysis for some water-soluble, organic analytes with strong hydrophobicity. The method has been applied to the determination of colorants in drinks and in instant drink powder. No time-consuming pretreatment, as used in conventional liquid chromatography, was needed.

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Topics: Ion chromatography (56%), Ponceau 4R (55%), Elution (55%) ...read more

158 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00441-7
Abstract: Milk beverages are popular because of their high nutritional value, and milk products that are enhanced with various fruit flavors are especially in high demand in Asia. Colorants are usually added to fruit flavored milk in order to increase its attraction and appearance, therefore, the detection and measurement of colorants in this type of beverage are relatively important for health issue reasons. Carminic acid, a natural colorant, along with tartrazine, Fast green FCF, Brilliant blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Indigo carmine, Sunset yellow FCF, and New coccine, which are seven different synthetic food colorants, are commonly used as food additives, therefore, this study would focus on the development of an analytical method for the detection of these common colorants in milk beverages. A high efficiency capillary electrophoresis separation method was finished by a pH 10.0 running buffer containing 7.0 mM beta-cyclodextrin, and the eight colorants were separated with baseline resolution within 9 min. In order to reduce the matrix interference resulting from the constituents of milk, a suitable polyamide column solid-phase extraction (SPE) was also investigated for milk sample pretreatment. The combination of the simple SPE pretreatment and the fast separation method of capillary electrophoresis, was able to determine successfully without matrix interference the content of these colorant additives in commercial milk beverages. The recoveries of the eight food colorants in milk beverages were better than 85% and the detection limits were also lower than 0.5 microg/ml by the developed method.

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Topics: Sunset Yellow FCF (56%), Tartrazine (52%), Fast Green FCF (52%) ...read more

120 Citations