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Journal ArticleDOI

Single-Dielectric Wideband Partially Reflecting Surface With Variable Reflection Components for Realization of a Compact High-Gain Resonant Cavity Antenna

07 Jan 2019-IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 67, Iss: 3, pp 1916-1921
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a design methodology for a compact low-cost partially reflecting surface (PRS) for a wideband high-gain resonant cavity antenna (RCA) which requires only a single commercial dielectric slab.
Abstract: This communication presents a design methodology for a compact low-cost partially reflecting surface (PRS) for a wideband high-gain resonant cavity antenna (RCA) which requires only a single commercial dielectric slab. The PRS has one nonuniform double-sided printed dielectric, which exhibits a negative transverse-reflection magnitude gradient and, at the same time, a progressive reflection phase gradient over frequency. In addition, a partially shielded cavity is proposed as a method to optimize the directivity bandwidth and the peak directivity of RCAs. A prototype of the PRS was fabricated and tested with a partially shielded cavity, showing good agreement between the predicted and measured results. The measured peak directivity of the antenna is 16.2 dBi at 11.4 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of 22%. The measured peak gain and 3 dB gain bandwidth are 15.75 dBi and 21.5%, respectively. The PRS has a radius of 29.25 mm ( $1.1\lambda _{0}$ ) with a thickness of 1.52 mm ( $0.12\lambda _{g}$ ), and the overall height of the antenna is $0.6\lambda _{0} $ , where $\lambda _{0}$ and $\lambda _{g}$ are the free-space and guided wavelengths at the center frequency of 11.4 GHz.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI

66 citations


Cites background from "Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..."

  • ...Over the last decade, the use of metamaterials has opened a new door in designing microwave and electromagnetics components.(30-33) In Reference 31, the application of a π-shaped transmission-line coupled to a specialized metamaterial structure resulted in a power divider operating in three bands, while the overall footprint is significantly smaller than the conventional Wilkinson power dividers....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed an all-metal wideband phase correcting structure (AWPCS) with none of these limitations and is designed based on the relative phase error extracted by postprocessing the actual near-field distributions of any EM sources.
Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) metasurfaces are essential in a wide range of EM engineering applications, from incorporated into antenna designs to separate devices like radome. Near-field manipulators are a class of metasurfaces engineered to tailor an EM source’s radiation patterns by manipulating its near-field components. They can be made of all-dielectric, hybrid, or all-metal materials; however, simultaneously delivering a set of desired specifications by an all-metal structure is more challenging due to limitations of a substrate-less configuration. The existing near-field phase manipulators have at least one of the following limitations; expensive dielectric-based prototyping, subject to ray tracing approximation and conditions, narrowband performance, costly manufacturing, and polarization dependence. In contrast, we propose an all-metal wideband phase correcting structure (AWPCS) with none of these limitations and is designed based on the relative phase error extracted by post-processing the actual near-field distributions of any EM sources. Hence, it is applicable to any antennas, including those that cannot be accurately analyzed with ray-tracing, particularly for near-field analysis. To experimentally verify the wideband performance of the AWPCS, a shortened horn antenna with a large apex angle and a non-uniform near-field phase distribution is used as an EM source for the AWPCS. The measured results verify a significant improvement in the antenna’s aperture phase distribution in a large frequency band of 25%.

54 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a method to reduce the number of dominant grating lobes by optimizing a supercell using Floquet analysis and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.
Abstract: High-directivity antenna systems that provide 2-D beam steering by rotating a pair of phase-gradient metasurfaces (PGMs) in the near field of a fixed-beam antenna, hereafter referred to as near-field meta-steering systems, are efficient, planar, simple, short, require less power to operate, and do not require antenna tilting. However, when steering the beam, such systems generate undesirable dominant grating lobes, which substantially limit their applications. Optimizing a pair of these metasurfaces to minimize the grating lobes using standard methods is nearly impossible due to their large electrical size and thousands of small features leading to high computational costs. This article addresses this challenge as follows. First, it presents a method to efficiently reduce the strength of “offending” grating lobes by optimizing a supercell using Floquet analysis and multi-objective particle swarm optimization. Second, it investigates the effects of the transmission phase gradient of PGMs on radiation-pattern quality. It is shown that the number of dominant unwanted lobes in a 2-D beam-steering antenna system and their levels can be reduced substantially by increasing the transmission phase gradient of the two PGMs. This knowledge is then extended to 2-D beam-steering systems, where we demonstrate how to substantially reduce all grating lobes to a level below −20 dB for all beam directions, without applying any amplitude tapering to the aperture field. When steering the beam of two meta-steering systems with peak directivities of 30.5 and 31.4 dBi, within a conical volume with an apex angle of 96°, the variation in directivity is 2.4 and 3.2 dB, respectively. We also demonstrate that beam-steering systems with steeper gradient PGMs can steer the beam in a wider range of directions, require less mechanical rotation of metasurfaces to obtain a given scan range, and their beam steering is faster. The gap between the two metasurfaces in a near-field meta-steering system can be reduced to one-eighth of a wavelength with no significant effect on pattern quality.

50 citations


Cites methods from "Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..."

  • ...that the near-field phase distribution produced by the antenna is uniform but if it is not uniform then it can be corrected by modifying MS1 using the method described in [35]–[37]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper demonstrates different approaches of recent development on wideband and high gain sub-millimeter-wave and Low-THz antennas as well as their fabrication technologies and introduces an all-metal model based on the Fabry–Perot cavity (FPC) theory.
Abstract: Low-terahertz (Low-THz, 100 GHz-1.0 THz) technology is expected to provide unprecedented data rates in future generations of wireless system such as the 6th generation (6G) mobile communication system. Increasing the carrier frequencies from millimeter wave to THz is a potential solution to guarantee the transmission rate and channel capacity. Due to the large transmission loss of Low-THz wave in free space, it is particularly urgent to design high-gain antennas to compensate the additional path loss, and to overcome the power limitation of Low-THz source. Recently, with the continuous updating and progress of additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing (3DP) technology, antennas with complicated structures can now be easily manufactured with high precision and low cost. In the first part, this paper demonstrates different approaches of recent development on wideband and high gain sub-millimeter-wave and Low-THz antennas as well as their fabrication technologies. In addition, the performances of the state-of-the-art wideband and high-gain antennas are presented. A comparison among these reported antennas is summarized and discussed. In the second part, one case study of a broadband high-gain antenna at 300 GHz is introduced, which is an all-metal model based on the Fabry–Perot cavity (FPC) theory. The proposed FPC antenna is very suitable for manufacturing using AM technology, which provides a low-cost, reliable solution for emerging THz applications.

47 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a linear polarization conversion coding metasurface (MS) is proposed for the radar cross section (RCS) reduction of an object, which has both wideband RCS reduction and high efficiency of mirror reflection in different frequency bands.
Abstract: A linear polarization conversion coding metasurface (MS) is proposed for the radar cross section (RCS) reduction of an object. The designed MS has both wideband RCS reduction and high efficiency of mirror reflection in different frequency bands. The cells are arranged according to different 1 bit coding sequences, and the characteristics of RCS reduction are verified by emulations and experiments. The simulation results indicate that the 01/10 coding MSs possess RCS reduction of greater than 10 dB in 9.5–13.9 and 15.2–20.4 GHz, and the 01/10 coding MS is less sensitive to polarization under normal incidence. The experiment results show that 10 dB RCS reduction is achieved in 10.2–14.0 and 15.3–20.7 GHz under normal incidence, and the relative bandwidth (BW) is 32% and 30%, while high efficiency of mirror reflection is obtained from 14.0 to 15.3 GHz. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Additionally, for the 01/10 coding MS, the dual-broadband performance is also well maintained under 0°–45° oblique incidence. It is a new and practical method to suppress the scattering of metal objects by the combination of scattering and reflection, which has significant potential in the applications of antenna designs or stealth technology fields.

44 citations


Cites background from "Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..."

  • ...Up to now, MSs can be in forms of all-dielectric surfaces [7], printed structures [8], and all-metal configurations [9], which have great application potentials in beamsteering, gain enhancement, and radar stealth fields....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of placing a partially reflecting sheet in front of an antenna with a reflecting screen at a wavelength of 3.2 cm and showed that large arrays produce considerably greater directivity but their efficiency is poor.
Abstract: Multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves between two planes are studied, and the increase in directivity that results by placing a partially reflecting sheet in front of an antenna with a reflecting screen is investigated at a wavelength of 3.2 cm. The construction and performance of various models of such arrays is discussed. Thus, for example, a "reflex-cavity antenna" with an outer diameter of 1.88 \lambda and an over-all length of only 0.65 \lambda is described which has half-power beamwidths of 34\deg and 41\deg in the E and H planes, respectively, and a gain of approximately 14 db. It is shown that larger systems produce considerably greater directivity but that their efficiency is poor.

977 citations


"Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Based on the analysis of ray tracing [8], [26], the resonance condition for maximum boresight radiation at the operating frequency is...

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, a high gain planar antenna with an optimized partially reflecting surface (PRS) placed in front of a waveguide aperture in a ground plane was investigated, where the antenna performance was initially related to the reflection characteristics of the PRS array following an approximate analysis.
Abstract: A high gain planar antenna has been investigated, using an optimised partially reflecting surface (PRS) placed in front of a waveguide aperture in a ground plane. The antenna performance is initially related to the reflection characteristics of the PRS array following an approximate analysis. The array geometry is optimised using an analytical formula. The optimisation results are verified using a full wave model taking into account the edge effects. The array size for maximum antenna efficiency has also been investigated.

611 citations


"Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Early high-gain RCAs had a small bandwidth of less than 3% [1], [14], [20] and, therefore, several attempts have been made to increase the bandwidth of this class of antennas [6]–[13], [21]–[23]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Partially reflecting surfaces with positive reflection phase gradients are investigated for the design of wideband, low profile electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antennas in this article, where three such surfaces, each with printed dipoles on both sides, have been designed to obtain different positive reflection phases and reflection magnitude levels in the operating frequency bands.
Abstract: Partially reflecting surfaces (PRS) with positive reflection phase gradients are investigated for the design of wideband, low-profile electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antennas. Thin single-dielectric-slab PRSs with printed patterns on both sides are proposed to minimize the PRS thickness and to simplify fabrication. Three such surfaces, each with printed dipoles on both sides, have been designed to obtain different positive reflection phase gradients and reflection magnitude levels in the operating frequency bands. These surfaces, and the EBG resonator antennas formed from them, are analyzed theoretically and experimentally to highlight the design compromises involved and to reveal the relationships between the antenna peak gain, gain bandwidth, the reflection profile (i.e., positive phase gradient and magnitude) of the surface and the relative dimensions of dipoles. A small feed antenna, designed to operate in the cavity field environment, provides good impedance matching (|S11| <; -10 dB) across the operating frequency bands of all three EBG resonator antennas. Experimental results confirm the wideband performance of a simple, low-profile EBG resonator antenna. Its PRS thickness is only 1.6 mm, effective bandwidth is 12.6%, measured peak gain is 16.2 dBi at 11.5 GHz and 3 dB gain bandwidth is 15.7%.

220 citations


"Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Owing to this fact, a positive reflection phase gradient can be achieved by taking advantage of the resonance [10]....

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  • ...However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure a wideband performance of RCAs [10]....

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  • ...In an attempt to minimize the number of FSSs in the superstructure, single-dielectric FSSs have been designed for high-gain RCAs at the price of both large lateral areas and limited bandwidths [10], [25]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a resonator antenna made from a complex artificial surface and a metallic ground plane is described, which is realized using a woodpile electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) material, and the antenna has a frequency dependent reflection plane location.
Abstract: A resonator antenna made from a complex artificial surface and a metallic ground plane is described. The complex surface is realized using a woodpile electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) material, which is shown to have a frequency dependent reflection plane location. A highly directive radiation pattern is created due to the angle-dependent attenuation of the resonator antenna coupling to free space. The antenna has the advantages of low height, low loss, and low sidelobes. It is shown that the directivity can be varied over a fixed range by changing the aperture size of the device, with the maximum directivity determined by both the feed element and EBG material properties. The complete bandgap for the woodpile EBG material is confirmed from a band diagram, and its properties as a complex surface are investigated through transmission calculation and measurement. The design of the antenna is described, and two means of exciting the resonator, a microstrip patch and a double slot, are investigated. Theoretical results for these two antennas are calculated the using finite-difference time-domain and are shown to be in good agreement with measured results.

206 citations


"Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Early high-gain RCAs had a small bandwidth of less than 3% [1], [14], [20] and, therefore, several attempts have been made to increase the bandwidth of this class of antennas [6]–[13], [21]–[23]....

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  • ...The PRS is generally made of 1-D periodic layers of dielectric [1]–[3], one or multiple 2-D frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) [4], [5], [6]–[13], or 3-D EBG structures [14]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a high-gain broadband Fabry-Perot-type antenna based on multilayer periodic partially reflective surfaces (PRSs) is proposed, consisting of metallic patches printed on thin dielectric substrates and placed in front of a ground plane, forming three open cavities.
Abstract: A high-gain broadband Fabry-Perot-type antenna is proposed, based on multilayer periodic partially reflective surfaces (PRSs). Three layers of PRSs are employed, consisting of metallic patches printed on thin dielectric substrates and placed in front of a ground plane, forming three open cavities. The antenna performance is based on the reflection characteristics of the PRS array, which are obtained using periodic analysis. An equivalent circuit approach is presented for the design of the multilayer PRSs showing very good agreement with full-wave analysis. The geometry has been optimized using full-wave simulations (CST Microwave Studio). An antenna of around 20-dBi gain at an operating frequency of 14.5 GHz is obtained with a 3-dB bandwidth of about 15%, outperforming earlier antenna designs based on two-layer PRS. A prototype has been fabricated and tested, validating the simulation results.

166 citations


"Single-Dielectric Wideband Partiall..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Early high-gain RCAs had a small bandwidth of less than 3% [1], [14], [20] and, therefore, several attempts have been made to increase the bandwidth of this class of antennas [6]–[13], [21]–[23]....

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  • ...It should be noted that periodic boundary conditions, assuming infinite repetition of unit cells in transverse directions, are used in the PRS design to significantly reduce the computation time [6]–[8]....

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  • ...It is observed that the reflection phase gradient is not always positive throughout the band, however, it does not violate the PRS wideband performance, as reported in [6], [9], and [21]....

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  • ...Several PRSs composed of multiple printed dielectric substrates have been designed to produce a progressive reflection phase gradient over a finite band, which creates a broadband response [6]–[9]....

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  • ...The PRS is generally made of 1-D periodic layers of dielectric [1]–[3], one or multiple 2-D frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) [4], [5], [6]–[13], or 3-D EBG structures [14]....

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