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Journal ArticleDOI

Single-Sideband Transmission by Envelope Elimination and Restoration

01 Jul 1952-Vol. 40, Iss: 7, pp 803-806

Abstract: A new type of single-sideband transmitter is described which does not require the use of linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Amplification is accomplished by a process in which the phase-modulation component of the single-sideband wave is amplified by means of Class-C amplifiers, and the amplitude envelope is restored at the final amplifier. Experimental results show performance equal to or better than conventional linear radio-frequency amplifier practices. The over-all efficiency is approximately the same as that of a double-sideband amplitude-modulated transmitter. This system is especially suitable for high-power operation.
Topics: Amplifier (61%), Compatible sideband transmission (59%), Amplitude modulation (56%), Transmitter power output (52%), Transmitter (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Doherty system combines the outputs of two or more linear RF power amplifiers through an impedance-inverting coupler such as a quarter-wave transmission line and can be considerably more efficient than a conventional class-B linear PA.
Abstract: A Doherty system combines the outputs of two or more linear RF power amplifiers (PAs) through an impedance-inverting coupler such as a quarter-wave transmission line. At low output levels, the first PA operates linearly, reaching saturation (and maximum efficiency) at some transition voltage below the system peak-output voltage. At higher output levels, the first PA remains saturated and the second PA operates linearly. The instantaneous efficiency and power characteristics of a Doherty system are derived using ideal class-B RF PAs so that the results can easily be scaled for use with real-world PAs. The average efficiency and maximum-efficiency transition points are then determined for a variety of amplitude-modulated signals. The Doherty amplifier can be considerably more efficient than a conventional class-B linear PA. For example, the 28-and 8.9-percent average efficiencies of a class-B PA with Rayleigh-distri buted envelopes with 10-and 20-dB peak-to-average ratios are improved to 60 and 48 percent, respectively, by a two-stage Doherty system. The addition of a third stage further improves the efficiencies to 70 and 66 percent, respectively.

388 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Feipeng Wang1, Donald F. Kimball1, J.D. Popp1, A.H. Yang1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A comparison of envelope elimination and restoration (EER) and envelope tracking (ET) is discussed and a "hybrid" wideband EER power amplifier (PA) for the WLAN 802.11g system is proposed. A 60% efficiency (the output envelope signal power/input dc power) DC-20-MHz wideband envelope amplifier is designed for wideband EER and wideband ET (WBET) applications. A design method is developed to optimize the efficiency of the envelope amplifier for a given peak-to-average ratio and average slew rate of the envelope signal. An experimental "hybrid" Class-E EER system shows an overall efficiency (modulated RF output power/envelope amplifier dc input power) of 36% and power-added efficiency (the modulated RF output power/envelope amplifier dc input power plus RF input power) of 28% for a WLAN 802.11g signal at 19-dBm (80 mW) output power at 2.4 GHz. Digital predistortion, time alignment, and memory effect mitigation are implemented. The measured 3% error vector magnitude exceeds the 802.11g specification for 5% for a 54-Mb/s modulation signal

335 citations

24 Aug 2009
Abstract: Preface. About the Authors. Acknowledgments. 1 Power Amplifier Fundamentals. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Definition of Power Amplifier Parameters. 1.3 Distortion Parameters. 1.4 Power Match Condition. 1.5 Class of Operation. 1.6 Overview of Semiconductors for PAs. 1.7 Devices for PA. 1.8 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships. 1.9 References. 2 Power Amplifier Design. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Design Flow. 2.3 Simplified Approaches. 2.4 The Tuned Load Amplifier. 2.5 Sample Design of a Tuned Load PA. 2.6 References. 3 Nonlinear Analysis for Power Amplifiers. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Linear vs. Nonlinear Circuits. 3.3 Time Domain Integration. 3.4 Example. 3.5 Solution by Series Expansion. 3.6 The Volterra Series. 3.7 The Fourier Series. 3.8 The Harmonic Balance. 3.9 Envelope Analysis. 3.10 Spectral Balance. 3.11 Large Signal Stability Issue. 3.12 References. 4 Load Pull. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Passive Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems. 4.3 Active Source/Load Pull Measurement Systems. 4.4 Measurement Test-sets. 4.5 Advanced Load Pull Measurements. 4.6 Source/Load Pull Characterization. 4.7 Determination of Optimum Load Condition. 4.8 Appendix: Construction of Simplified Load Pull Contours through Linear Simulations. 4.9 References. 5 High Efficiency PA Design Theory. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Power Balance in a PA. 5.3 Ideal Approaches. 5.4 High Frequency Harmonic Tuning Approaches. 5.5 High Frequency Third Harmonic Tuned (Class F). 5.6 High Frequency Second Harmonic Tuned. 5.7 High Frequency Second and Third Harmonic Tuned. 5.8 Design by Harmonic Tuning. 5.9 Final Remarks. 5.10 References. 6 Switched Amplifiers. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 The Ideal Class E Amplifier. 6.3 Class E Behavioural Analysis. 6.4 Low Frequency Class E Amplifier Design. 6.5 Class E Amplifier Design with 50# Duty-cycle. 6.6 Examples of High Frequency Class E Amplifiers. 6.7 Class E vs. Harmonic Tuned. 6.8 Class E Final Remarks. 6.9 Appendix: Demonstration of Useful Relationships. 6.10 References. 7 High Frequency Class F Power Amplifiers. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Class F Description Based on Voltage Wave-shaping. 7.3 High Frequency Class F Amplifiers. 7.4 Bias Level Selection. 7.5 Class F Output Matching Network Design. 7.6 Class F Design Examples. 7.7 References. 8 High Frequency Harmonic Tuned Power Amplifiers. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Theory of Harmonic Tuned PA Design. 8.3 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Theoretical Analysis. 8.4 Input Device Nonlinear Phenomena: Experimental Results. 8.5 Output Device Nonlinear Phenomena. 8.6 Design of a Second HT Power Amplifier. 8.7 Design of a Second and Third HT Power Amplifier. 8.8 Example of 2nd HT GaN PA. 8.9 Final Remarks. 8.10 References. 9 High Linearity in Efficient Power Amplifiers. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Systems Classification. 9.3 Linearity Issue. 9.4 Bias Point Influence on IMD. 9.5 Harmonic Loading Effects on IMD. 9.6 Appendix: Volterra Analysis Example. 9.7 References. 10 Power Combining. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Device Scaling Properties. 10.3 Power Budget. 10.4 Power Combiner Classification. 10.5 The T-junction Power Divider. 10.6 Wilkinson Combiner. 10.7 The Quadrature (90 ) Hybrid. 10.8 The 180 Hybrid (Ring Coupler or Rat-race). 10.9 Bus-bar Combiner. 10.10 Other Planar Combiners. 10.11 Corporate Combiners. 10.12 Resonating Planar Combiners. 10.13 Graceful Degradation. 10.14 Matching Properties of Combined PAs. 10.15 Unbalance Issue in Hybrid Combiners. 10.16 Appendix: Basic Properties of Three-port Networks. 10.17 References. 11 The Doherty Power Amplifier. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Doherty's Idea. 11.3 The Classical Doherty Configuration. 11.4 The 'AB-C' Doherty Amplifier Analysis. 11.5 Power Splitter Sizing. 11.6 Evaluation of the Gain in a Doherty Amplifier. 11.7 Design Example. 11.8 Advanced Solutions. 11.9 References. Index.

323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Feipeng Wang1, A.H. Yang1, D.F. Kimball1, Lawrence E. Larson1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: An efficiency-enhanced power-amplifier system design is presented based on wide-bandwidth envelope tracking (WBET) with application to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing wireless local area network systems. Envelope elimination and restoration (EER) and WBET are compared in terms of the time mismatch sensitivity between the base-band amplitude path and the RF path, and it is demonstrated that WBET is much less sensitive than EER to these effects. An adaptive time-alignment algorithm for the WBET system is developed and demonstrated. The analysis and algorithm are verified by experimental results. The measurement shows that the peak drain efficiency of the complete system was 30% at a 2.4-GHz orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing output power of 20 dBm.

317 citations

Cites background or methods from "Single-Sideband Transmission by Env..."

  • ...There are three traditional dynamic power-supply control schemes for PA efficiency enhancement: EER [ 8 ]‐[10], wide-bandwidth envelope tracking (WBET) [12], and average envelope tracking (AET) [13], [14]....


  • ...This problem has been thoroughly investigated over many years and envelope elimination and restoration (EER) [ 8 ]‐[10], predistortion [3], [4], feedback [3], [4], feed-forward [4], Doherty [11], envelope tracking (ET) [12]‐[15], linear amplification with nonlinear control (LINC) [16], and gate dynamic biasing [17], [18] are just some of the techniques explored....


Brian Joseph Budnik1Institutions (1)
07 Jan 1999
Abstract: A variable-class linear amplifier (600, 800, 900) applies a supply type of envelope modulation to an RF power amplifier operating in or near compression at highest envelope amplitudes, and transitions gradually to an envelope tracking type of operation at intermediate envelope amplitudes. The amplifier further transitions gradually to a linear class of operation with a constant supply voltage (508) at lowest envelope amplitudes.

296 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
F.A. Polkinghorn1, N.F. Schlaack1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 1935
Abstract: This paper describes the construction of a short-wave single side-band reduced-carrier system of radio transmission. It also reports the results of comparisons made between this system and an ordinary short-wave double side-band system between England and the United States. It was found that the single side-band system gave an equivalent improvement in radiated power over the double side-band system averaging eight decibels. This is in good agreement with the theoretical improvement to be expected.

14 citations

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