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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICAEE.2014.6838467

Six-fold photonic quasicrystal fiber for generating few cycle laser pulses

19 Jun 2014-pp 1-3
Abstract: A solid core photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) is a novel microstructured optical fiber which could provide a large nonlinearity and a low dispersion, which, in turn, could be exploited for generating few cycle laser pulses. We look for the hitherto mentioned optical properties in the proposed PQF by carefully changing the geometrical parameters, namely, core diameter and the pitch. We report a large nonlinearity (γ = 588.2993 W−1m−1) and a low dispersion (≈ 0.095 ps/nm.m) for operating wavelengths from 1200 to 2000 nm.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/REVMODPHYS.72.545
Thomas Brabec1, Ferenc Krausz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The rise time of intense radiation determines the maximum field strength atoms can be exposed to before their polarizability dramatically drops due to the detachment of an outer electron. Recent progress in ultrafast optics has allowed the generation of ultraintense light pulses comprising merely a few field oscillation cycles. The arising intensity gradient allows electrons to survive in their bound atomic state up to external field strengths many times higher than the binding Coulomb field and gives rise to ionization rates comparable to the light frequency, resulting in a significant extension of the frontiers of nonlinear optics and (nonrelativistic) high-field physics. Implications include the generation of coherent harmonic radiation up to kiloelectronvolt photon energies and control of the atomic dipole moment on a subfemtosecond $(1{\mathrm{f}\mathrm{s}=10}^{\mathrm{\ensuremath{-}}15}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s})$ time scale. This review presents the landmarks of the 30-odd-year evolution of ultrashort-pulse laser physics and technology culminating in the generation of intense few-cycle light pulses and discusses the impact of these pulses on high-field physics. Particular emphasis is placed on high-order harmonic emission and single subfemtosecond extreme ultraviolet/x-ray pulse generation. These as well as other strong-field processes are governed directly by the electric-field evolution, and hence their full control requires access to the (absolute) phase of the light carrier. We shall discuss routes to its determination and control, which will, for the first time, allow access to the electromagnetic fields in light waves and control of high-field interactions with never-before-achieved precision.

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Topics: Nonlinear optics (54%), Ponderomotive energy (54%), Photon (52%) ...read more

2,414 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/68.924030
T.P. Hansen, Jes Broeng1, Stig E. Barkou Libori1, Erik Knudsen1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer new possibilities of realizing highly birefringent fibers due to a higher intrinsic index contrast compared to conventional fibers. In this letter, we analyze theoretically the levels of birefringence that can be expected using relatively simple PCF designs. While extremely high degrees of birefringence may be obtained for the fibers, we demonstrate that careful design with respect to multimode behavior must be performed. We further discuss the cutoff properties of birefringent PCFs and present experimental results in agreement with theoretical predictions on both single- and multimode behavior and on levels of birefringence.

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Topics: Birefringence (59%), Photonic-crystal fiber (58%), Photonic crystal (54%) ...read more

486 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE03977
Weining Man1, Mischa Megens2, Paul J. Steinhardt, Paul Chaikin3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Aug 2005-Nature
Abstract: Quasicrystalline structures may have optical bandgap properties — frequency ranges in which the propagation of light is forbidden — that will make them well suited for applications in which photonic crystals are normally used. Previous work has focused on one- and two-dimensional quasicrystals for which exact theoretical calculations can be made. But when it comes to three dimensions, computation of the optical properties remains a tough challenge. Man et al. tackled the three-dimensional case experimentally using a large photonic quasicrystal made of plastic. They find that the periodic structure yields surprisingly simple spectra, and the resulting structural insights confirm that quasicrystals are excellent candidates for photonic bandgap materials. Quasicrystalline structures may have optical bandgap properties—frequency ranges in which the propagation of light is forbidden—that make them well-suited to the scientific and technological applications for which photonic crystals1,2,3 are normally considered4. Such quasicrystals can be constructed from two or more types of dielectric material arranged in a quasiperiodic pattern whose rotational symmetry is forbidden for periodic crystals (such as five-fold symmetry in the plane and icosahedral symmetry in three dimensions). Because quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry than ordinary crystals, their gap centre frequencies are closer and the gaps widths are more uniform—optimal conditions for forming a complete bandgap that is more closely spherically symmetric. Although previous studies have focused on one-dimensional and two-dimensional quasicrystals4,5,6,7, where exact (one-dimensional) or approximate (two-dimensional) band structures can be calculated numerically, analogous calculations for the three-dimensional case are computationally challenging and have not yet been performed. Here we circumvent the computational problem by doing an experiment. Using stereolithography, we construct a photonic quasicrystal with centimetre-scale cells and perform microwave transmission measurements. We show that three-dimensional icosahedral quasicrystals exhibit sizeable stop gaps and, despite their quasiperiodicity, yield uncomplicated spectra that allow us to experimentally determine the faces of their effective Brillouin zones. Our studies confirm that they are excellent candidates for photonic bandgap materials.

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Topics: Photonic crystal (58%), Quasicrystal (54%), Quasiperiodicity (50%) ...read more

214 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.006848
05 Sep 2005-Optics Express
Abstract: By exploiting the broad region of anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the large effective nonlinearity of photonic nanowires, we demonstrate soliton-effect self-compression of 70-fs pulses down to 6.8 fs. Under suitable conditions, simulations predict that self-compression down to single-cycle duration is possible.

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Topics: Supercontinuum (55%), Soliton (optics) (53%), Self-phase modulation (52%) ...read more

151 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11230
19 Jul 2012-Nature
Abstract: Recent advances in the fabrication of quasicrystals in soft matter systems have increased the length scales for quasicrystals into the mesoscale range (20 to 500 angstroms). Thus far, dendritic liquid crystals, ABC-star polymers, colloids and inorganic nanoparticles have been reported to yield quasicrystals. These quasicrystals offer larger length scales than intermetallic quasicrystals (a few angstroms), thus potentially leading to optical applications through the realization of a complete photonic bandgap induced via multiple scattering of light waves in virtually all directions. However, the materials remain far from structurally ideal, in contrast to their intermetallic counterparts, and fine control over the structure through a self-organization process has yet to be attained. Here we use the well-established self-assembly of surfactant micelles to produce a new class of mesoporous silicas, which exhibit 12-fold (dodecagonal) symmetry in both electron diffraction and morphology. Each particle reveals, in the 12-fold cross-section, an analogue of dodecagonal quasicrystals in the centre surrounded by 12 fans of crystalline domains in the peripheral part. The quasicrystallinity has been verified by selected-area electron diffraction and quantitative phason strain analyses on transmission electron microscope images obtained from the central region. We argue that the structure forms through a non-equilibrium growth process, wherein the competition between different micellar configurations has a central role in tuning the structure. A simple theoretical model successfully reproduces the observed features and thus establishes a link between the formation process and the resulting structure.

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Topics: Phason (59%), Quasicrystal (52%), Electron diffraction (51%) ...read more

122 Citations


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