scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019140

Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Is the Most Atherogenic Lipoprotein Parameter in the Prospective Framingham Offspring Study.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of the American Heart Association (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health))-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 1-15
Abstract: Background Elevated plasma levels of direct low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), small dense LDL‐C (sdLDL‐C), low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides, triglycerides, triglyceride‐rich l...

... read more

Topics: Lipoprotein (55%)
Citations
  More

6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CJCA.2021.08.012
D. Vikulova1, Mark Trinder1, G.B. John Mancini1, Simon N. Pimstone1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), and elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) increase risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of FH, FCHL, elevated Lp(a) and their impact on management in patients with premature CAD. Methods We prospectively recruited men ≤ 50 years and women ≤ 55 with obstructive CAD. FH was defined as Dutch Lipid Clinic Network scores ≥ 6. FCHL was defined as apolipoprotein B > 1.2 g/L, triglyceride and total cholesterol > 90th population percentile, and family history of premature cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL was considered to be elevated. Results Among 263 participants, 9.1% met criteria for FH, 12.5% for FCHL, and 19.4% had elevated Lp(a). Among patients with FH, 37.5% had FH-causing DNA variants. Patients with FH, but not other dyslipidemias, were more likely than nondyslipidemic patients to have received lipid-lowering therapy before presenting with CAD (33.3% vs 12.3%, P = 0.04) and combined lipid-lowering therapy after the presentation (41.7% vs 7.7%, P Conclusions FH, FCHL, and elevated Lp(a) are common in patients with premature CAD and have differing impact on treatment and achievement of lipid targets. Assessment for these conditions in patients with premature CAD provides valuable information for individualized management.

... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12872-021-01979-7
Jianwei Zhang1, Lingjie He1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Residual risk remained significant despite effective low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering treatment. Small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) as part of LDL-C has been found to be predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with stable CHD independently of LDL-C. However, to date, few studies have explored the role of sdLDL-C in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the association of sdLDL-C with CV events in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. Patients hospitalized with ACS undergoing PCI were enrolled and followed up for 18 months. The risk of sdLDL-C for CV events was compared according to sdLDL-C quartiles. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE), which was the composite of all cause of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke or unplanned repeat revascularization. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to estimate the risk of CV events. Subgroup analysis according to diabetes status and LDL-C were performed separately for MACCE. A total of 6092 patients were included in the analysis (age: 60.2 ± 10.13 years, male: 75.3%, BMI: 25.9 ± 3.33 kg/m2, dyslipidemia: 74.1% and diabetes: 44.5%). During 18 months of follow-up, 320 (5.2%) incident CV events occurred. Compared to the lowest sdLDL-C quartile group, patients in the highest quartile had a greater risk of CV events after multivariable adjustment (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.37–2.70). In addition, it was mainly due to the increase of unplanned repeat revascularization. In the subgroup analyses, significant association was observed regardless of level of LDL-C and diabetes status. Patients with elevated sdLDL-C have a higher risk of CV events in Chinese patients with ACS undergoing PCI, providing additional value for better risk assessment.

... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22094633
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular disease that leads to inflammation and stiffening of the arteries and decreases their elasticity due to the accumulation of calcium, small dense Low Density Lipoproteins (sdLDL), inflammatory cells, and fibrotic material. A review of studies pertaining to cardiometabolic risk factors, lipids alterations, hypolipidemic agents, nutraceuticals, hypoglycaemic drugs, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation was performed. There are several therapeutic strategies including Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, inclisiran, bempedoic acid, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and nutraceuticals that promise improvement in the atheromatous plaque from a molecular point of view, because have actions on the exposure of the LDL-Receptor (LDL-R), on endothelial dysfunction, activation of macrophages, on lipid oxidation, formations on foam cells, and deposition extracellular lipids. Atheroma plaque reduction both as a result of LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) intensive lowering and reducing inflammation and other residual risk factors is an integral part of the management of atherosclerotic disease, and the use of valid therapeutic alternatives appear to be appealing avenues to solving the problem.

... read more

Topics: Lipid oxidation (53%), Atheroma (52%), Endothelial dysfunction (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10163456
Abstract: In this study, we aim to explore the effects on lipids of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in naive and switch randomised controlled trials, and compare them with protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). We reviewed phase 3/4 randomised clinical trials in the Cochrane and PubMed databases that compare an INSTI with a boosted PI, an NNRTI, or another INSTI plus one or two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs) in naive patients and switching strategies in HIV-infected patients. We reported the baseline plasma concentration of total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), and the TC/HDL-c ratio, as well as the change at weeks 48 and 96, when available. In naive HIV-infected patients, raltegravir (RAL) and dolutegravir (DTG) have a more favourable lipid profile compared with NNRTI and boosted PI. Elvitegravir (EVG/c) has a superior lipid profile compared with efavirenz and is similar to that observed with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir except in TG, which increases less with EVG/c. In naive patients, RAL, DTG, and bictegravir (BIC) produce a similar, slight increase in lipids. In switching trials, the regimen change based on a boosted PI or efavirenz to RAL, DTG, or BIC is associated with clinically significant decreases in lipids that are minor when the change is executed on EVG/c. No changes were observed in lipids by switching trials between INSTIs. In summary, RAL, DTG, and BIC have superior lipid profiles compared with boosted-PI, efavirenz, and EVG/c, in studies conducted in naive participants, and they are associated with a clinically significant decrease in lipoproteins by switching studies.

... read more

Topics: Raltegravir (57%), Efavirenz (54%), Dolutegravir (54%) ... read more

Open accessDOI: 10.1016/J.XCRM.2021.100446
Hirotaka Fukami1, Jun Morinaga1, Hironori Nakagami2, Hiroki Hayashi2  +11 moreInstitutions (2)
16 Nov 2021-
Abstract: Summary Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), a major cause of death worldwide. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), recognized as a new therapeutic target for dyslipidemia, regulates the metabolism of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. Here, we design 3 epitopes (E1-E3) for use in development of a peptide vaccine targeting ANGPTL3 and estimate effects of each on obesity-associated dyslipidemia in B6.Cg-Lepob/J (ob/ob) mice. Vaccination with the E3 (32EPKSRFAMLD41) peptide significantly reduces circulating levels of triglycerides, LDL-C, and small dense (sd)-LDL-C in ob/ob mice and decreases obese-induced fatty liver. Moreover, E3 vaccination does not induce cytotoxicity in ob/ob mice. Interestingly, the effect of E3 vaccination on dyslipidemia attenuates development of atherosclerosis in B6.KOR/StmSlc-Apoeshl mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, which represent a model of severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by ApoE loss of function. Taken together, ANGPTL3 vaccination could be an effective therapeutic strategy against dyslipidemia and associated diseases.

... read more


References
  More

44 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CLINCHEM/18.6.499
01 Jun 1972-Clinical Chemistry
Abstract: A method for estimating the cholesterol content of the serum low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf0-20) is presented. The method involves measurements of fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, none of which requires the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Comparison of this suggested procedure with the more direct procedure, in which the ultracentrifuge is used, yielded correlation coefficients of .94 to .99, depending on the patient population compared.

... read more

28,790 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2013.11.005
Abstract: Harmon S. Jordan, ScD, Lev Nevo, MD, Janusz Wnek, PhD Jeffrey L. Anderson, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair , Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect , Nancy M. Albert, PhD, CCNS, CCRN, FAHA, Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA, Ralph G. Brindis, MD, MPH, MACC, Lesley H. Curtis, PhD, FAHA, David

... read more

3,418 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000437741.48606.98
24 Jun 2014-Circulation
Abstract: Preamble and Transition to ACC/AHA Guidelines to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk S50 The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD); improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research; and develop guidelines, standards, and policies that promote optimal patient care and cardiovascular health. Toward these objectives, the ACC and AHA have collaborated with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and stakeholder and professional organizations to develop …

... read more

2,811 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0022-2275(20)42943-8
M. Burstein1, H.R. Scholnick1, Morfin R1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Procedures are described for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions and divalent cations. A mixture of low and very low density lipoproteins can be prepared without ultracentrifugation by precipitation with heparin and either MnCl(2) alone or MgCl(2) plus sucrose. In both cases the precipitation is reversible, selective, and complete. The highly concentrated isolated lipoproteins are free of other plasma proteins as judged by immunological and electrophoretic methods. The low density and very low density lipoproteins can then be separated from each other by ultracentrifugation. The advantage of the method is that large amounts of lipoproteins can be prepared with only a single preparative ultracentrifugation. Polyanions other than heparin may also be used; when the precipitation of the low and very low density lipoproteins is achieved with dextran sulfate and MnCl(2), or sodium phosphotungstate and MgCl(2), the high density lipoproteins can subsequently be precipitated by increasing the concentrations of the reagents. These lipoproteins, containing small amounts of protein contaminants, are further purified by ultracentrifugation at d 1.22. With a single preparative ultracentrifugation, immunologically pure high density lipoproteins can be isolated from large volumes of serum.

... read more

2,366 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625
Abstract: Glenn N. Levine, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair Patrick T. O’Gara, MD, MACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Immediate Past Chair [‡‡‡][1] Sana M. Al-Khatib, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA Joshua A. Beckman, MD, MS, FAHA Kim K. Birtcher, PharmD, MS, AACC Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD,

... read more

2,333 Citations