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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Smart high voltage circuit breaker in overhead power lines for smart grid applications

28 Oct 2013-pp 1118-1123
TL;DR: In this paper, a smart circuit breaker is presented for detecting a fault during the real time operation of the power system, which monitors the high frequency impedance of the grid in a real time which can operate in both energized and de-energized conditions.
Abstract: Fault detection and protection is a major concern in electric transmission and distribution network. Faults having high impedance on an energized network are difficult to capture and pose great threat for safety and security. Smart circuit breaker is presented for detecting a fault during the real time operation of the power system. The proposed method monitors the high frequency impedance of the grid in a real time which can operate in both energized and de-energized conditions. In order to measure the impedance, circuit breaker injects high frequency signal into the line. Injected signal is blocked by a LC line trapper at the substation side and by an active blocker at the opposing end of the desired segment. Relative change in the measured impedance is a reference to detect the presence of the high impedance fault. The validity of the proposed method is verified with simulations.
Citations
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Patent
29 Apr 2015
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a smart sensor network for power grid health monitoring, which includes a plurality of spaced sensors that are magnetically coupled to the power transmission line to be monitored.
Abstract: A smart sensor network for power grid health monitoring includes a plurality of spaced sensors that are magnetically coupled to the power transmission line to be monitored. The sensors include a signal injection unit and a signal sensing unit. As such, one of the sensors acts to inject, via its signal injection unit, a high frequency signal through the magnetic coupling into the power transmission line, while sensors on either side of the signal injecting sensor act to block the injected signal, which is then detected by the signal sensing unit of the injecting sensor, and is used to measure the impedance of the power transmission line segment being analyzed. Based on the difference between a pre-measured impedance of the power transmission line being monitored and the actual impedance value of the power transmission line being measured by the sensor, the health of the power line can be obtained.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ke Zhu1, Rundong Lv1
TL;DR: The results of the theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and lab experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to improve the decreasing success rate of reclosing in a non-effectively grounded system with a wide application of cables.
Abstract: A scheme is proposed to improve the decreasing success rate of reclosing in a non-effectively grounded system with a wide application of cables. An inverter source is momentarily connected to the low-voltage side of a service transformer by controlled thyristors to apply a transient high voltage to the de-energized feeder before reclosing. Based on the idea of parameter identification, the internal structure of the de-energized feeder is investigated according to the frequency characteristics of the reference parameters to determine whether the feeder still experiences the fault. The influence of the firing angle on the strength of the frequency components in the transient waveforms is analyzed to determine its range for accurate measurement of feeder harmonic impedance. A sensitivity analysis on the fault property detection criterion is conducted, and the selection of the inverter source power impacted by the firing angle is provided. The results of the theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and lab experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

4 citations


Cites background from "Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..."

  • ...In [9], a high frequency signal is injected into a de-energized line to monitor its impedance for fault detection....

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Patent
29 Apr 2015
TL;DR: A smart sensor network for power grid health monitoring includes a plurality of spaced sensors that are magnetically coupled to the power transmission line to be monitored to obtain the health of the power line.
Abstract: A smart sensor network for power grid health monitoring includes a plurality of spaced sensors that are magnetically coupled to the power transmission line to be monitored. The sensors include a signal injection unit and a signal sensing unit. As such, one of the sensors acts to inject, via its signal injection unit, a high frequency signal through the magnetic coupling into the power transmission line, while sensors on either side of the signal injecting sensor act to block the injected signal, which is then detected by the signal sensing unit of the injecting sensor, and is used to measure the impedance of the power transmission line segment being analyzed. Based on the difference between a pre-measured impedance of the power transmission line being monitored and the actual impedance value of the power transmission line being measured by the sensor, the health of the power line can be obtained.
Patent
29 Apr 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, a reseau de capteurs intelligents is used to surveiller l'etat d'un reseau electrique, and comprenant une pluralite of capteur espaces which sont couples magnetiquement a la ligne de transport d'electricite a surveiller.
Abstract: L'invention se rapporte a un reseau de capteurs intelligents permettant de surveiller l'etat d'un reseau electrique, et comprenant une pluralite de capteurs espaces qui sont couples magnetiquement a la ligne de transport d'electricite a surveiller. Les capteurs comportent une unite d'injection de signal et une unite de detection de signal. L'un de ces capteurs sert a injecter un signal haute frequence dans la ligne de transport d'electricite, par l'intermediaire de l'unite d'injection de signal dudit capteur et a travers le couplage magnetique, tandis que les capteurs sur n'importe quel cote du capteur d'injection de signal ont pour effet de bloquer le signal injecte, qui est ensuite detecte par l'unite de detection de signal du capteur d'injection, et utilise pour mesurer l'impedance du segment de ligne de transport d'electricite en cours d'analyse. L'etat de la ligne electrique peut etre obtenu sur la base de la difference entre l'impedance mesuree au prealable pour la ligne de transport d'electricite sous surveillance et la valeur d'impedance reelle de la ligne de transport d'electricite mesuree par le capteur.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This model, incorporating ground admittance, is more appropriate at higher frequencies than predicted by Carson's model of 1926, and is further used to evaluate the multipath channel impulse response and associated capacity limit in sample power distribution grids for applications in broadband over power lines communications.
Abstract: This paper presents a channel model suitable for multiwire overhead medium voltage lines. This model, incorporating ground admittance, is more appropriate at higher frequencies than predicted by Carson's model of 1926. The proposed model is further used to evaluate the multipath channel impulse response and associated capacity limit in sample power distribution grids for applications in broadband over power lines communications. For a sample grid model, comparison is made to the capacity value predicted based on the Carson's model, and it is demonstrated that the older model underestimates the potential of the overhead lines for broadband transmissions, significantly.

132 citations


"Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The blocks are internal impedance Zi, external impedance Ze, ground impedance Zg , external admittance Ye, and ground admittance Yg [10] [11] [12]....

    [...]

  • ...The high frequency impedance of the overhead power line is modeled based on the line geometry, air and earth related parameters and conductor characteristics [10] [11] [12]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the simulation model of a multiconductor dissipative line above a lossy ground, based on the exact formulation of the Maxwell equations, is proposed for a wide frequency range.
Abstract: For pt. I see ibid., vol.38, no.2, p.127, 1996. The simulation model of a multiconductor dissipative line above a lossy ground, based on the exact formulation of the Maxwell equations, is proposed for a wide frequency range. The procedure is an extension of the analysis of single conductor configurations. The exact expression of the matrix modal equation of the line is first proposed, assuming that in the system there are as many dominant discrete modes of propagation as there are conductors. New expressions of the distributed series-impedance and shunt-admittance matrices are proposed, with reference to the definition of the wire-to-ground voltage. Moreover, an easy-to-implement simulation model is proposed for use in computer codes, based on the logarithmic approximation of the Sommerfeld integrals and Bessel functions. Applications are carried out in order to compare the results of the proposed procedure and of the Carson (1926) theory, with reference to a three-conductor line above a lossy ground.

129 citations


"Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The blocks are internal impedance Zi, external impedance Ze, ground impedance Zg , external admittance Ye, and ground admittance Yg [10] [11] [12]....

    [...]

  • ...The high frequency impedance of the overhead power line is modeled based on the line geometry, air and earth related parameters and conductor characteristics [10] [11] [12]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded from these calculations that many situations can exist in which the present ANSI recommended standard of 632 V/m for the frequency band 0.3-3 MHz is too high.
Abstract: The body impedance and threshold currents needed to produce sensations of perception and pain have been measured for 367 human subjects for the frequency range 10 kHz to 3 MHz. A sufficient number of subjects (197 male and 170 female subjects of ages between 18 and 70 years) were utilized in the study to make valid statistical predictions for the general adult population. Various types of contact with metallic electrodes were used to simulate the situation where a human being would be in contact with a large metallic object (car, van, school bus, etc.) in an electromagnetic field in the VLF to MF band. Based on these measurements, it is speculated that the body impedance of a human being is inversely proportional to the body dimensions and the threshold current for perception is directly proportional to the square of the body dimensions. Predictions are made, based on scaling, for the corresponding threshold values for ten-year-old children. The average measured impedance and threshold current values are used to calculate threshold electric fields required to produce sensations of perception and pain in humans in contact with these vehicles. It is concluded from these calculations that many situations can exist in which the present ANSI (American National Standards Institute) recommended standard of 632 V/m for the frequency band 0.3-3 MHz is too high.

92 citations


"Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Since HIF is often caused by energized conductor in reach of public, it poses great threat for safety and security [2]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method that deals with the exact location of HIF position using an installed power line communication (PLC) system is elaborated, which comprises specific test signal injections into the power grid after a HIF alarm is set.
Abstract: An effective protection scheme against high impedance faults (HIFs) has to efficiently confront the issues of detection and location simultaneously. In Part I of this study the issue of detection is investigated, while in Part II a method that deals with the exact location of HIF position using an installed power line communication (PLC) system is elaborated. This method comprises specific test signal injections into the power grid after a HIF alarm is set. Using impulse responses that are recorded by the PLC devices, the location of the fault may be derived. A flowchart that describes the usage of the complete method for HIF detection and location is presented. The impulse responses that correspond to several fault cases are shown and the methodology that may lead to the fault location is explained. The effect of the fault type and its impedance on the efficacy of the method is highlighted. Finally, the model is applied to a line that is part of the Greek rural distribution system and its validity is tested.

63 citations


"Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In [7] [8] two different methods to detect and localize single phase and three phase faults in energized power grid are presented....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed method is applied to single branch topologies, as well as to an existing topology of a Greek rural distribution system, and it is shown that the implementation of the proposed method may be drastically simplified by focusing on the monitoring of specific frequencies rather than the entire frequency range under study.
Abstract: Occurrence of high impedance faults (HIFs) in rural overhead power distribution networks may cause safety and economic issues for both public and the utility. Such faults may not be detected by the conventional protection schemes, so the development of a more sophisticated method is necessary. The forthcoming evolution of power networks to smart grids creates opportunities for new technologies to be implemented to that purpose. Utilities may transmit data that are necessary for the system operation using specific frequency ranges. A novel method utilizing these is proposed in this work. The monitoring of the network's input impedance in these frequency ranges can be used for detection of HIF occurrence, because such faults impose significant changes in its value. The proposed method is applied to single branch topologies, as well as to an existing topology of a Greek rural distribution system. Significant conclusions are derived in both cases. Moreover, the influence of several parameters, such as fault impedance and location and earth's electromagnetic properties on the method's efficacy is examined. Also, it is shown that the implementation of the proposed method may be drastically simplified by focusing on the monitoring of specific frequencies rather than the entire frequency range under study.

63 citations


"Smart high voltage circuit breaker ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In [7] [8] two different methods to detect and localize single phase and three phase faults in energized power grid are presented....

    [...]