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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10050966

Smell and Taste Loss Recovery Time in COVID-19 Patients and Disease Severity.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Clinical Medicine (MDPI AG)-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 966
Abstract: A significant proportion of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 report a new onset of smell or taste loss. The duration of the chemosensory impairment and predictive factors of recovery are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, temporal course and recovery predictors in patients who suffered from varying disease severity. Consecutive adult patients diagnosed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 via reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at two coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) Reference Hospitals were contacted to complete a survey reporting chemosensory loss, severity, timing and duration, nasal symptoms, smoking, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, comorbidities and COVID-19 severity. In a cross-sectional study, we contacted 182 patients and 150 responded. Excluding the critically ill patients, 38% reported gustatory and 41% olfactory impairment (74% severe/anosmia). Most of the patients (88%) recovered their sense of smell by two months (median: 11.5 days; IQR: 13.3). For 23%, the olfactory loss lasted longer than a month. There were no significant differences in the prevalence and duration of chemosensory loss between groups of varying COVID-19 severity, and sexes (all p > 0.05). Moderate hyposmia resolved quicker than more severe loss (p = 0.04). Smell and taste loss are highly prevalent in COVID-19. Most patients recover fast, but nearly one out of ten have not recovered in two months.

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Topics: Anosmia (56%), Hyposmia (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12272-021-01344-4
Abstract: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the severity of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is likely to be distinguished by variations in loss of smell (LOS). Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 articles that include a total of 42,120 COVID-19 patients from 17 different countries to demonstrate that severely ill or hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a lesser chance of experiencing LOS than non-severely ill or non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (odds ratio = 0.527 [95% CI 0.373-0.744; p < 0.001] and 0.283 [95% CI 0.173-0.462; p < 0.001], respectively). We also proposed a possible mechanism underlying the association of COVID-19 severity with anosmia, which may explain why patients without sense of smell develop severe COVID-19. Variations in LOS according to the severity of COVID-19 is a global phenomenon, with few exceptions. Since severely ill patients have a lower rate of anosmia, patients without anosmia should be monitored more closely in the early stages of COVID-19, for early diagnosis of severity of illness. An understanding of how the severity of COVID-19 infection and LOS are associated has profound implications for the clinical management and mitigation strategies for the disease.

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Topics: Anosmia (59%), Severity of illness (57%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JDSR.2021.07.001
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible pandemic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The characteristics of the disease include a broad range of symptoms from mild to serious to death, with mild pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome and complications in extrapulmonary organs. Taste impairment and salivary dysfunction are common early symptoms in COVID-19 patients. The mouth is a significant entry route for SARS-COV-2, similar to the nose and eyes. The cells of the oral epithelium, taste buds, and minor and major salivary glands express cell entry factors for SARS-COV-2, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin. We describe the occurrence of taste impairment and salivary dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and show immunohistochemical findings regarding the cell entry factors in the oral tissue. We review and describe the pathogeneses of taste impairment and salivary dysfunction. Treatment for the oral disease is also described. Recently, it was reported that some people experience persistent and prolonged taste impairment and salivary dysfunction, described as post-COVID-19 syndrome or long COVID-19, after the acute illness of the infection has healed. To resolve these problems, it is important to understand the pathogenesis of oral complications. Recently, important advances have been reported in the understanding of gustatory impairment and salivary dysfunction. Although some progress has been made, considerable effort is still required for in-depth elucidation of the pathogenesis.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SINUSITIS5020012
24 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Altered smell is one of the most prevalent symptoms in acute COVID-19 infection. Although most patients recover normal neurosensory function in a few weeks, approximately one-tenth of patients report long-term smell dysfunction, including anosmia, hyposmia, parosmia and phantosmia, with a particularly notable impact on quality of life. In this complex scenario, inflammation and cellular damage may play a key role in the pathogenesis of olfactory dysfunctions and may affect olfactory signaling from the peripheral to the central nervous system. Appropriate management of smell disturbances in COVID-19 patients must focus on the underlying mechanisms and the assessment of neurosensorial pathways. This article aims to review the aspects of olfactory impairment, including its pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical management in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS).

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Topics: Parosmia (67%), Hyposmia (59%), Anosmia (59%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.10.09.21264771
09 Oct 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Chemosensory scientists have been skeptical that reports of COVID-19 taste loss are genuine, in part because before COVID-19, taste loss was rare and often confused with smell loss. Therefore, to establish the predicted prevalence rate of taste loss in COVID-19 patients, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 376 papers published in 2020-2021, with 241 meeting all inclusion criteria. Additionally, we explored how methodological differences (direct vs. self-report measures) may affect these estimates. We hypothesized that direct prevalence measures of taste loss would be the most valid because they avoid the taste/smell confusion of self-report. The meta-analysis showed that, among 138,897 COVID-19-positive patients, 39.2% reported taste dysfunction (95% CI: 35.34-43.12%), and the prevalence estimates were slightly but not significantly higher from studies using direct (n = 18) versus self-report (n = 223) methodologies (Q = 0.57, df = 1, p = 0.45). Generally, males reported lower rates of taste loss than did females and taste loss was highest in middle-aged groups. Thus, taste loss is a bona fide symptom COVID-19, meriting further research into the most appropriate direct methods to measure it and its underlying mechanisms.

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Topics: Taste (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNINS.2021.708510
Fan Yuan1, Tianhao Huang1, Yongxiang Wei1, Dawei Wu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background: Postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) is a clinical challenge due to limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. Both steroids and olfactory training have been proved to be effective for olfactory dysfunction with varied etiologies. We sought to perform a systematic review to summarize the evidence of steroids or olfactory training for patients with PVOD. Methods: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was conducted to identify studies assessing olfactory change in patients with PVOD receiving steroid or olfactory training. Results: Of the initial 273 abstracts reviewed, 20 articles with data from 2,415 patients with PVOD were included. Treatments including topical steroids, systemic steroids, classical olfactory training (COT), modified olfactory training (MOT), and olfactory training with steroid were analyzed. Both psychophysical olfactory testing and subjective symptom scores were utilized to assess the olfactory function. The routine use of nasal steroid spray alone during the management of PVOD seems to have no positive effect on olfactory dysfunction. Direct injection of steroid or nasal steroid spray into the olfactory cleft significantly improved the olfactory function in patients with PVOD. Olfactory improvement is greater than that of the natural course of the disease with short-term COT. Patients with PVOD would benefit more from long-term COT (>12 weeks). Treatment duration, various odorants, olfactory training devices, changing the types of odors periodically, different molecular odorants, and different concentrations of odorants tended to increase the efficiency of MOT. Clinically significant improvement after olfactory training was defined as an increase of threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) score ≥6. From week 24 to week 36, both COT and MOT groups reached the maximum therapeutic effect regarding the number of participants achieving clinically significant improvement. A combination of local or oral steroids with olfactory training is more efficient than COT only. Conclusion: Olfactory function in patients with PVOD was effectively improved through direct steroid administration in the olfactory cleft, COT, or modification of COT. The addition of topical steroids to COT therapy showed a tendency for greater olfactory improvement in patients with PVOD.

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Topics: Olfactory system (66%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ALR.22587
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient-reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID-19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID-19 patients has been performed. METHODS: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well-validated 40-odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID-19 inpatients and 60 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the magnitude and frequency of their olfactory dysfunction. A mixed effects analysis of variance determined whether meaningful differences in test scores existed between the 2 groups and if the test scores were differentially influenced by sex. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (98%) of the 60 patients exhibited some smell dysfunction (mean [95% CI] UPSIT score: 20.98 [19.47, 22.48]; controls: 34.10 [33.31, 34.88]; p < 0.0001). Thirty-five of the 60 patients (58%) were either anosmic (15/60; 25%) or severely microsmic (20/60; 33%); 16 exhibited moderate microsmia (16/60; 27%), 8 mild microsmia (8/60; 13%), and 1 normosmia (1/60; 2%). Deficits were evident for all 40 UPSIT odorants. No meaningful relationships between the test scores and sex, disease severity, or comorbidities were found. CONCLUSION: Quantitative smell testing demonstrates that decreased smell function, but not always anosmia, is a major marker for SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggests the possibility that smell testing may help, in some cases, to identify COVID-19 patients in need of early treatment or quarantine.

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Topics: Parosmia (58%), Smell function (55%), Anosmia (53%)

442 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ALR.22592
Abstract: Author(s): Yan, Carol H; Faraji, Farhoud; Prajapati, Divya P; Ostrander, Benjamin T; DeConde, Adam S | Abstract: BackgroundRapid spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has left many health systems around the world overwhelmed, forcing triaging of scarce medical resources. Identifying indicators of hospital admission for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients early in the disease course could aid the efficient allocation of medical interventions. Self-reported olfactory impairment has recently been recognized as a hallmark of COVID-19 and may be an important predictor of clinical outcome.MethodsA retrospective review of all patients presenting to a San Diego Hospital system with laboratory-confirmed positive COVID-19 infection was conducted with evaluation of olfactory and gustatory function and clinical disease course. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors for hospital admission and anosmia.ResultsA total of 169 patients tested positive for COVID-19 disease between March 3 and April 8, 2020. Olfactory and gustatory data were obtained for 128 (75.7%) of 169 subjects, of which 26 (20.1%) of 128 required hospitalization. Admission for COVID-19 was associated with intact sense of smell and taste, increased age, diabetes, and subjective and objective parameters associated with respiratory failure. On adjusted analysis, anosmia was strongly and independently associated with outpatient care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.74), whereas positive findings of pulmonary infiltrates and/or pleural effusion on chest radiograph (aOR 8.01; 95% CI, 1.12-57.49) was strongly and independently associated with admission.ConclusionNormosmia is an independent predictor of admission in COVID-19 cases. Smell loss in COVID-19 may be associated with a milder clinical course.

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Topics: Odds ratio (51%), Anosmia (51%), Ambulatory care (50%)

226 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0194599820929185
Abstract: ObjectiveOlfactory dysfunction (OD)—hyposmia or anosmia—is a symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-C...

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%)

133 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1586/14737167.4.2.159
Abstract: The reliability of recall patient reported outcomes, such as health-related quality of life, satisfaction and symptoms, varies substantially The objectives of this special report are to identify key issues to consider in study design and provide suggestions for minimizing bias in studies including patient reported outcomes A MEDLINE search identified several areas in which patient recall is subject to bias Concordance between patient recall and baseline assessments (eg, prior to an event or medical intervention) for these patient reported outcomes varies depending on the event being recalled, time since the event, and patient clinical and demographic characteristics Symptom recall tends to be better than recall of health-related quality of life or pain intensity Specific questionnaire techniques may help minimize the impact of recall bias Further research is required to determine what factors or patient characteristics predict improved recall and what techniques minimize recall bias

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Topics: Recall bias (72%), Recall (62%), Patient satisfaction (54%)

130 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0022215120001826
Abstract: Background The long-term recovery rate of chemosensitive functions in coronavirus disease 2019 patients has not yet been determined. Method A multicentre prospective study on 138 coronavirus disease 2019 patients was conducted. Olfactory and gustatory functions were prospectively evaluated for 60 days. Results Within the first 4 days of coronavirus disease 2019, 84.8 per cent of patients had chemosensitive dysfunction that gradually improved over the observation period. The most significant increase in chemosensitive scores occurred in the first 10 days for taste and between 10 and 20 days for smell. At the end of the observation period (60 days after symptom onset), 7.2 per cent of the patients still had severe dysfunctions. The risk of developing a long-lasting disorder becomes significant at 10 days for taste (odds ratio = 40.2, 95 per cent confidence interval = 2.204–733.2, p = 0.013) and 20 days for smell (odds ratio = 58.5, 95 per cent confidence interval = 3.278–1043.5, p = 0.005). Conclusion Chemosensitive disturbances persisted in 7.2 per cent of patients 60 days after clinical onset. Specific therapies should be initiated in patients with severe olfactory and gustatory disturbances 20 days after disease onset.

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82 Citations


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