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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/EAT.23486

Social and economic cost of eating disorders in the United States: Evidence to inform policy action

02 Mar 2021-International Journal of Eating Disorders (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 54, Iss: 5, pp 851-868
Abstract: Objective To estimate one-year costs of eating disorders in the United States (U.S.) from a societal perspective, including the costs to the U.S. health system, individual and family productivity costs, lost wellbeing, and other societal economic costs, by setting and payer. Findings will inform needed policy action to mitigate the impact of eating disorders in the U.S. Method Costs of eating disorders were estimated using a bottom-up cost-of-illness methodology, based on the estimated one-year prevalence of eating disorders. Intangible costs of reduced wellbeing were also estimated using disability-adjusted life years. Results Total economic costs associated with eating disorders were estimated to be $64.7 billion (95% CI: $63.5-$66.0 billion) in fiscal year 2018-2019, equivalent to $11,808 per affected person (95% CI: $11,754-$11,863 per affected person). Otherwise Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder accounted for 35% of total economic costs, followed by Binge Eating Disorder (30%), Bulimia Nervosa (18%) and Anorexia Nervosa (17%). The substantial reduction in wellbeing associated with eating disorders was further valued at $326.5 billion (95% CI: $316.8-$336.2 billion). Discussion The impact of eating disorders in the U.S. is substantial when considering both economic costs and reduced wellbeing (nearly $400 billion in fiscal year 2018-2019). Study findings underscore the urgency of identifying effective policy actions to reduce the impact of eating disorders, such as through primary prevention and screening to identify people with emerging or early eating disorders in primary care, schools, and workplaces and ensuring access to early evidence-based treatment.

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Topics: Eating disorders (67%), Binge-eating disorder (62%), Bulimia nervosa (61%) ... read more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/EAT.23531
Abstract: Objective To replicate findings from a prior study which identified prospective associations between use of products for weight control and subsequent receipt of a first-time eating disorder (ED) diagnosis among female adolescents and young adults. Method Data from a prospective cohort study, Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), were used to examine prospective associations between self-reported past-year diet pill and laxative use for weight control and self-reported receipt of an ED diagnosis among females without prior receipt of an ED diagnosis (N = 1,015). Participants were followed from early/middle adolescence (EAT-I; Mage = 14.9 years) into late adolescence/emerging adulthood (EAT-II; Mage = 19.5 years) and young adulthood (EAT-III; Mage = 24.8 years). Results First-time receipt of an ED diagnosis was reported by 2.4% of participants at EAT-II and 4.0% at EAT-III. After adjusting for demographics and weight status, participants using diet pills (risk ratio [RR] = 3.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.96-6.54) and laxatives (RR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.01-7.64) had greater risk of receiving a first-time ED diagnosis within 5 years than those not using these products. Discussion The present study replicated prior findings, providing further evidence for a prospective link between use of products for weight control and subsequent receipt of an ED diagnosis.

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Topics: Eating disorders (51%), Young adult (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-021-00465-X
Abstract: Adult eating disorder treatments are hampered by lack of access and limited efficacy. This open-trial study evaluated the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a novel intervention for adults with eating disorders delivered to young adults and parent-supports in an intensive, multi-family format (Young Adult Temperament-Based Treatment with Supports; YA-TBT-S). 38 YA-TBT-S participants (m age = 19.58; SD 2.13) with anorexia nervosa (AN)-spectrum disorders, bulimia nervosa (BN)-spectrum disorders, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) completed self-report assessments at admission, discharge, and 12-month follow-up. Assessments measured program satisfaction, eating disorder psychopathology and impairment, body mass index (BMI), and trait anxiety. Outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed effects models to examine changes in outcome variables over time. Treatment was rated as highly satisfactory. 53.33% were in partial or full remission at 12-month follow-up. 56% of participants received other treatment within the 12-month follow-up period, suggesting that YA-TBT-S may be an adjunctive treatment. Participants reported reductions in ED symptomatology (AN and BN), increases in BMI (AN and ARFID), and reductions in clinical impairment (AN and ARFID) at 12-month follow-up. YA-TBT-S is a feasible and acceptable adjunctive treatment for young adults with a broad range of ED diagnoses and may be a method for involving parents in ED treatment in ways that are acceptable to both parents and YA. Further evaluation of efficacy is needed in larger samples, and to compare YA-TBT-S to other ED treatment approaches. Plain English summary Eating disorders are costly and dangerous psychiatric disorders that affect millions of individuals each year. Despite their risks and societal costs, currently available treatments are limited. This study examined the acceptability and efficacy of Young Adult, Temperament-Based Treatment with Supports (YA-TBT-S), a new treatment program for adults with eating disorders. YA-TBT-S was rated highly, and a significant portion of participants improved based on ratings collected 12 months after program participation. Those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) showed significant reductions in eating disorder pathology, and those with AN and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) showed increases in BMI over time.

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Topics: Eating disorders (67%), Bulimia nervosa (64%), Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (64%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000750
Anna Keski-Rahkonen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Purpose of review Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new diagnosis in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Recent findings DSM-5 BED is currently estimated to affect 1.5% of women and 0.3% of men worldwide; a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-5 BED is reported by 0.6-1.8% of women and 0.3-0.7% of men. In adolescence, BED is even more prevalent, but often transient. Many adults with BED report longstanding symptoms; less than half are recognized in healthcare. Commonly co-occurring conditions include obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In a nationally representative US-based study, up to 23% of individuals with BED had attempted suicide, and virtually all (94%) reported lifetime mental health symptoms: 70% mood disorders, 68% substance use disorders, 59% anxiety disorders, 49% borderline personality disorder, and 32% posttraumatic stress disorder. Data on mortality are scarce, but the standardized mortality ratio of BED is estimated to be 1.5-1.8. Various minority statuses, deprivation, violence, trauma, and major mental illness may increase the risk of BED. Summary BED is often invisible and overlooked, perhaps due to societal biases. For this reason, prevention, detection, and management of BED are closely linked with social justice and equity.

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Topics: Mental illness (58%), Eating disorders (58%), Comorbidity (57%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11920-021-01287-Z
Abstract: Binge eating is a transdiagnostic symptom that disproportionately affects females. Sexually dimorphic gonadal hormones (e.g., estradiol, testosterone) substantially impact eating behavior and may contribute to sex differences in binge eating. We examine recent evidence for the role of gonadal hormones in binge eating risk across development. Both organizational (long-lasting impact on the central nervous system (CNS)) and activational (transient influences on the CNS) hormone effects may contribute to sex differences in binge eating. Gonadal hormones also impact within-sex variability in binge eating, with higher estradiol levels in females and higher testosterone levels in males protective across development. Emerging evidence suggests that the impact of gonadal hormones may be greatest for people with other risk factors, including genetic, temperamental (e.g., high negative affect), and psychosocial (e.g., exposure to weight-based teasing) risk. Gonadal hormones contribute to sex differences and within-sex variability in binge eating across development.

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Topics: Binge eating (71%), Hormone (50%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/EAT.23507
Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with economic and quality of life burden. Several cost-of-illness studies has been reported, however, the study by Streatfeild et al. (2021) for the first time provided a comprehensive analysis of the economic burden of EDs in the United States. This study provides an opportunity to highlight the critical need for evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive and treatment interventions for EDs. However, to be able to do, this further enhancement and inclusion of EDs into population health surveillance and health services data are required. While there were some limitations in the cost-of-illness study undertaken by Streatfeild et al. (2021), it does nonetheless present very reasonable recommendations as to what is required next. We agree that the likely impacts and costs of EDs are substantive and there is certainly a strong case for further research investment in this traditionally underinvested area.

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Topics: Population health (51%)

1 Citations


References
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40 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61611-6
09 Nov 2013-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in GBD 2010, we systematically reviewed epidemiological data and used a Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR, to model prevalence by age, sex, country, region, and year. We obtained disability weights from representative community surveys and an internet-based survey to calculate YLDs. We calculated premature mortality as YLLs from cause of death estimates for 1980–2010 for 20 age groups, both sexes, and 187 countries. We derived DALYs from the sum of YLDs and YLLs. We adjusted burden estimates for comorbidity and present them with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings In 2010, mental and substance use disorders accounted for 183·9 million DALYs (95% UI 153·5 million–216·7 million), or 7·4% (6·2–8·6) of all DALYs worldwide. Such disorders accounted for 8·6 million YLLs (6·5 million–12·1 million; 0·5% [0·4–0·7] of all YLLs) and 175·3 million YLDs (144·5 million–207·8 million; 22·9% [18·6–27·2] of all YLDs). Mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of YLDs worldwide. Depressive disorders accounted for 40·5% (31·7–49·2) of DALYs caused by mental and substance use disorders, with anxiety disorders accounting for 14·6% (11·2–18·4), illicit drug use disorders for 10·9% (8·9–13·2), alcohol use disorders for 9·6% (7·7–11·8), schizophrenia for 7·4% (5·0–9·8), bipolar disorder for 7·0% (4·4–10·3), pervasive developmental disorders for 4·2% (3·2–5·3), childhood behavioural disorders for 3·4% (2·2–4·7), and eating disorders for 1·2% (0·9–1·5). DALYs varied by age and sex, with the highest proportion of total DALYs occurring in people aged 10–29 years. The burden of mental and substance use disorders increased by 37·6% between 1990 and 2010, which for most disorders was driven by population growth and ageing. Interpretation Despite the apparently small contribution of YLLs—with deaths in people with mental disorders coded to the physical cause of death and suicide coded to the category of injuries under self-harm—our findings show the striking and growing challenge that these disorders pose for health systems in developed and developing regions. In view of the magnitude of their contribution, improvement in population health is only possible if countries make the prevention and treatment of mental and substance use disorders a public health priority. Funding Queensland Department of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre-University of New South Wales, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, University of Toronto, Technische Universitat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, and the US National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

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Topics: Years of potential life lost (56%), Poison control (53%), Substance abuse (53%) ... read more

4,058 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPSYCH.2006.03.040
Abstract: Background Little population-based data exist on the prevalence or correlates of eating disorders.

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3,866 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7
Gbd Disease, Injury Incidence, Lorenzo Monasta1, Luca Ronfani1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
10 Nov 2018-The Lancet
Abstract: Research reported in this publication was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the University of Melbourne, Public Health England, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, the National Institute on Ageing of the National Institutes of Health (award P30AG047845), and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (award R01MH110163).

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Topics: Public health (63%), Mental health (53%)

3,736 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHGENPSYCHIATRY.2011.74
Abstract: Context Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with eating disorders are thought to be high, but exact rates remain to be clarified. Objective To systematically compile and analyze the mortality rates in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Data Sources A systematic literature search, appraisal, and meta-analysis were conducted of the MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases and 4 full-text collections (ie, ScienceDirect, Ingenta Select, Ovid, and Wiley-Blackwell Interscience). Study Selection English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 1966, and September 30, 2010, that reported mortality rates in patients with eating disorders. Data Extraction Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals and corrected for years of observation and sample size (ie, person-years of observation). Weighted proportion meta-analysis was used to adjust for study size using the DerSimonian-Laird model to allow for heterogeneity inclusion in the analysis. Data Synthesis From 143 potentially relevant articles, we found 36 quantitative studies with sufficient data for extraction. The studies reported outcomes of AN during 166 642 person-years, BN during 32 798 person-years, and EDNOS during 22 644 person-years. The weighted mortality rates (ie, deaths per 1000 person-years) were 5.1 for AN, 1.7 for BN, and 3.3 for EDNOS. The standardized mortality ratios were 5.86 for AN, 1.93 for BN, and 1.92 for EDNOS. One in 5 individuals with AN who died had committed suicide. Conclusions Individuals with eating disorders have significantly elevated mortality rates, with the highest rates occurring in those with AN. The mortality rates for BN and EDNOS are similar. The study found age at assessment to be a significant predictor of mortality for patients with AN. Further research is needed to identify predictors of mortality in patients with BN and EDNOS.

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1,353 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHGENPSYCHIATRY.2011.22
Sonja A. Swanson1, Scott J. Crow2, Daniel Le Grange3, Joel Swendsen1  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Context Eating disorders are severe conditions, but little is known about the prevalence or correlates of these disorders from population-based surveys of adolescents. Objectives To examine the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in a large, reprefentative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents with face-to-face interviews using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders and subthreshold conditions. Results Lifetime prevalence estimates of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder were 0.3%, 0.9%, and 1.6%, respectively. Important differences were observed between eating disorder subtypes concerning sociodemographic correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, role impairment, and suicidality. Although the majority of adolescents with an eating disorder sought some form of treatment, only a minority received treatment specifically for their eating or weight problems. Analyses of 2 related subthreshold conditions suggest that these conditions are often clinically significant. Conclusions Eating disorders and subthreshold eating conditions are prevalent in the general adolescent population. Their impact is demonstrated by generally strong associations with other psychiatric disorders, role impairment, and suicidality. The unmet treatment needs in the adolescent population place these disorders as important public health concerns.

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Topics: Eating disorders (69%), Binge-eating disorder (66%), Bulimia nervosa (65%) ... read more

1,153 Citations


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