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Journal ArticleDOI

Social Norms, the Self, and Sociobiology: Building on the Ideas of A. I. Hallowell (and Comments and Reply)

TL;DR: Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even in the absence of their prototypes.
Abstract: A. I. Hallowell tried to turn anthropology towards a sociobiology while the former field was still strongly opposed to any consideration of the evolution of human behavior. His work is of more than historical interest, however, because he stressed the evolution of the human ability to internalize social norms and evaluate self and others in terms of them. This ability is the basis of our species's trait of cultural rather than biological adaptation to diverse ecological settings. Sociobiologists have dealt with the evolution of norm acquisition under the rubric of "altruism." Insofar as adherence to norms either directly increases the fitnes of kin (kin selection) or indirectly increases the fitness of all participants (reciprocal altruism), both Hamilton and Trivers have offered explanations for adherence to social norms. Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even i...
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as mentioned in this paper is a remarkable and strikingly original work which is published in German and English in parallel pages and it is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation.
Abstract: 13 EADERS of Mr. Bertrand Russell's philosophical £v works know that one of his pupils before the outbreak of the war, an Austrian, Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein, caused him to change his views in some important particulars. Curiosity can now be satisfied. The “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “which Mr. Ogden has included in his new library of philosophy is a remarkable and strikingly original work. It is published in German and English in parallel pages. It is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation. Also we should have liked to have the Tractatus without Mr. Russell's Introduction, not, we hasten to add, on account of any fault or shortcoming in that introduction, which is highly appreciative and in part a defence of himself, in part explanatory of the author, but for the reason that good wine needs no bush and that Mr. Russell's bush has the unfortunate effect of dulling the palate instead of whetting the appetite. In his penultimate sentence Mr. Russell says; “To have constructed a theory of logic which is not at any point obviously wrong is to have achieved a work of extraordinary difficulty and importance.” We agree, but how uninspiring when compared with Mr. Wittgenstein's own statement of aim: “What can be said at all can be said clearly, and whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. By Ludwig Wittgenstein. (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method.) Pp. 189. (London: Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Inc., 1922.) 10s. 6d. net.

1,130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that self-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers' responses are private in nature; in contrast, other-benefit messages are publicly accountable for their responses, which is related to a desire to manage impressions by behaving in a manner consistent with normative expectations.
Abstract: Despite the growing need, nonprofit organization marketers have not yet fully delineated the most effective ways to position charitable appeals. Across five experiments, the authors test the prediction that other-benefit (self-benefit) appeals generate more favorable donation support than self-benefit (other-benefit) appeals in situations that heighten (versus minimize) public self-image concerns. Public accountability, a manipulation of public self-awareness, and individual differences in public self-consciousness all moderate the effect of appeal type on donor support. In particular, self-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers' responses are private in nature; in contrast, other-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers are publicly accountable for their responses. This effect is moderated by norm salience and is related to a desire to manage impressions by behaving in a manner consistent with normative expectations. The results have important managerial implications, suggest...

434 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: This chapter provides an overview of evolutionary theory and archaeology and reasons to believe that scientific evolution can be expanded to provide an explanatory framework for cultural phenomena.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter provides an overview of evolutionary theory and archaeology. If evolution is taken to mean what it does in the sciences, it has yet to be systematically applied in either sociocultural anthropology or archaeology. There are reasons to believe that scientific evolution can be expanded to provide an explanatory framework for cultural phenomena. The applicability of evolutionary theory to archaeology is not established by a demonstration of its explanatory power for sociocultural phenomena. If it is to be used in archaeology, it must be rewritten in terms that have empirical representation in the archaeological record. Archaeological evolutionary theory will have to be constructed by deducing the consequences of evolutionary theory as employed in biology and as applicable to ethnographic data for artifacts, and their frequencies and distributions. Even so, a few aspects of the archaeological record, those not directly subject to selection, will require explanation in strictly cultural terms. It is clear that archaeologists want to obtain the kinds of explanations that only scientific evolution is able to provide.

305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book explains how genetic variation arises from: Recombination during sexual reproduction – genes are put into new combinations during Meiosis, producing new phenotypes Mutation – mistakes are made in the copying of DNA Lateral gene transfer – genes is passed between prokaryotic organisms
Abstract: 4. How does natural variation affect evolution? What are the sources of genetic variation within populations? Explain how each increases genetic variation. Without natural variation, all organisms would be identical. Therefore, no organism would have an advantage over another. If a change occurred in the ecosystem the entire species would be wiped out. Genetic variation arises from: Recombination during sexual reproduction – genes are put into new combinations during Meiosis, producing new phenotypes Mutation – mistakes are made in the copying of DNA Lateral gene transfer – genes are passed between prokaryotic organisms

187 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A genetical mathematical model is described which allows for interactions between relatives on one another's fitness and a quantity is found which incorporates the maximizing property of Darwinian fitness, named “inclusive fitness”.

14,730 citations


"Social Norms, the Self, and Sociobi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The strength of the theoretical ideas (Hamilton 1964; William 1966; Trivers 1971; Alexander 1974, 1975; West-Eberhard 1975; Wilson 1975) which have 106 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Barkow: SOCIAL NORMS, THE SELF, AND SOCIOBIOLOGY come to be labeled sociobiology lies in their rigorous attempt to delineate…...

    [...]

  • ...…The theory of altruism provides a clear example of this risk, one particularly germane in view of our earlier discussion and of the growing literature dealing with the topic (see, e.g., Campbell 1972, 1975; Dawkins 1976; Hamilton 1964, 1970, 1971, 1975; Trivers 1971, 1974; Wilson 1975)....

    [...]

  • ...23 x 77 The basic premiss of sociobiology is that many powerful selective pressures stem from competition among individuals to maximize their genetic representation in the gene pool: their inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior, and the model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system.
Abstract: A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...

9,318 citations


"Social Norms, the Self, and Sociobi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The pressure for conformity and reciprocity does arise, however, when "grudgers" appear in a population (Trivers 1971, Dawkins 1976)....

    [...]

  • ...Trivers (1971) argues that there has been selection in favor of behavioral attributes which reduce the probability of successful cheating....

    [...]

  • ...Barkow's two sociobiological explanations and one psychosocial one for the development of human normative behavior, offered in an attempt to coalesce cultural and evolutionary theorv, seem to me of no more value than the reductionistic theories of Dawkins (1976), Hamilton (1975), or Trivers (1971)....

    [...]

  • ...The strength of the theoretical ideas (Hamilton 1964; William 1966; Trivers 1971; Alexander 1974, 1975; West-Eberhard 1975; Wilson 1975) which have 106 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Barkow: SOCIAL NORMS, THE SELF, AND SOCIOBIOLOGY come to be labeled sociobiology lies in their rigorous attempt to delineate…...

    [...]

  • ...…The theory of altruism provides a clear example of this risk, one particularly germane in view of our earlier discussion and of the growing literature dealing with the topic (see, e.g., Campbell 1972, 1975; Dawkins 1976; Hamilton 1964, 1970, 1971, 1975; Trivers 1971, 1974; Wilson 1975)....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: Ressenya de l'obra d'E. O. Wilson apareguda el 1975, Sociobiology. The New Synthesis.The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Abstract: Ressenya de l'obra d'E. O. Wilson apareguda el 1975, Sociobiology. The New Synthesis .The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

6,126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1977-Nature

6,044 citations


"Social Norms, the Self, and Sociobi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The pressure for conformity and reciprocity does arise, however, when "grudgers" appear in a population (Trivers 1971, Dawkins 1976)....

    [...]

  • ...The same behavior may be understood and explained at several levels of organization, a fact which Wilson (1975) and Dawkins (1976) understand but Irons and Kurland do not....

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  • ...Barkow's two sociobiological explanations and one psychosocial one for the development of human normative behavior, offered in an attempt to coalesce cultural and evolutionary theorv, seem to me of no more value than the reductionistic theories of Dawkins (1976), Hamilton (1975), or Trivers (1971)....

    [...]

  • ...The dominant vision of evolutionary process is one of genes-minute strands of DNA, remember-seeking only one thing: their own replication (Dawkins 1976)....

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  • ...Dawkins (1976) clearly shows that in a society in which most of the individuals are "suckers" and will perform altruistic acts for everyone, the selfish "cheat" who gains from altruistic acts but does not reciprocate has a reproductive advantage....

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Book
01 Jan 1966

4,508 citations


"Social Norms, the Self, and Sociobi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...But such group selection represents a basic misunderstanding of the nature and generation of adaptation by natural selection (Williams 1966)....

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  • ...Indeed, a given genotype may either generate facultative or obligate adaptive responses within the norm of reaction for the environments inwhich it has evolved (Williams 1966)....

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