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Journal ArticleDOI

Socio-cultural Adaptation of Second-generation Afghans in Iran

01 Dec 2015-International Migration (Blackwell Publishing Ltd)-Vol. 53, Iss: 6, pp 89-110

AbstractThe long-term settlement of Afghan immigrants in Iran, along with their high fertility, has produced an important shift in the composition of their population with the emergence of a “second generation”. This article aims to examine how second-generation Afghans have adapted to the host society and to what extent their adaptation patterns have correlated with demographic and contextual factors. The data is drawn from the 2010 Afghans Adaptation Survey which covered 520 second-generation Afghans. Results revealed that second-generation Afghans have a variety of adaptation patterns. Integration is the most prevalent pattern of adaptation and acculturation (which is observed among 35.8 per cent of respondents) followed by separation (33.3%), assimilation (17.1%) and marginalization (13.8%). Our multivariate analysis showed that such socio-demographic factors as gender, education, ethnicity, perceived discrimination, family context, neighbourhood characteristics, length and city of residence are associated with their adaptation patterns. Policy Implications Successful implementation of policies and durable solutions for Afghans in Iran rests on the diversity of the adaptation patterns of their second-generation. Restriction on employment opportunities has led to downward assimilation and marginalization of some of the Afghans in Iran. Improvement in labour laws would promote the integration of Afghans in the society. Afghan females have relatively better access to a gender-equitable environment in Iran than they do in Afghanistan, and are less willing to return to their homeland. The Government of Afghanistan should improve service and security provisions for women to ensure their voluntary repatriation.

Topics: Afghan (55%), Population (51%)

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Citations
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Dissertation
01 Sep 2018
Abstract: .......................................................................................................... iii ÖZET ...................................................................................................................... v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... viii LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... x LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ xi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................ xii CHAPTER I ............................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Concepts and Terminology ............................................................................. 2 1.2 Theoretical Framework .................................................................................. 4 1.3 Methodology and Case Selection.................................................................... 7 1.4 The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Afghan Refugees .................................. 9 1.5 Chapter breakdown ...................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER II ......................................................................................................... 13 2.1 History of Afghan Migration to Iran ............................................................. 14 2.2 1978-1979: Crucial Years of Change ............................................................ 17

8 citations


Cites background from "Socio-cultural Adaptation of Second..."

  • ...After the fall of Taliban in late 2001, migration caused by security concerns decreased but in contrast to this, the economic migration increased after 2004 (Abbasi-Shavazi & Sadeghi, 2014, p. 91)....

    [...]

  • ...The IRI also built some 15.000 new classrooms for these children (AFP, 2017; Abbasi-Shavazi & Sadeghi, 2014)....

    [...]

  • ...This new influx is notable for the economic migration of the Afghanistan’s urban, educated middle class (Abbasi-Shavazi & Sadeghi, 2014, p. 91)....

    [...]

  • ...Economic measures for securitizing Afghan migration to Iran are significant, considering the fact that financial concerns are one of the major motivations for Afghans to migrate to Iran (Abbasi-Shavazi & Sadeghi, 2014)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: International migration is increasingly important in shaping national population dynamics, both directly through adding or subtracting people, and indirectly, through the fertility of immigrants. International migrants rarely share the fertility characteristics of either origin or destination populations. However, the relationship between migration and fertility is little understood, especially that relating to refugee populations. This study examined the fertility differentials of one of the world’s largest refugee populations, the Afghans in Iran, in relation to the host population. Based on multivariate analysis, the study demonstrated that Afghan immigrants were moving from a high fertility regime to a low fertility regime. The findings suggest that fertility change among Afghans is associated with their adaptation to Iranian society. The role of education in mediating immigrant–native fertility differentials was also uncovered.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The objective of this article is to examine the shift in the intergenerational mobility of Indian immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Based on a qualitative methodology, this article reports on the differences in the entrepreneurial attitudes of push and pull and the aptitudes of social and human capital between pre 2000 and post 2000 immigrant entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that the post 2000 Indian migrant entrepreneurs in Australia are mostly pull motivated, have higher qualifications than the pre 2000 arrivals, speak better English, have professional educational qualifications relevant to their business, and operate predominantly in the service sector. They take fewer years to get into business and are less dependent on immigrant social capital resources than pre 2000 arrivals. The study proposes that, compared with social capital resources, human capital resource have a greater impact on entrepreneurial propensity in the case of second generation Indian migrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Policy Implications This research has implication for Australian immigration policy, labour laws and settlement services of migrants. It recommends successful implementation of policies and durable solutions for Indian immigrants in the labour market in Australia. The Australian Government will be assisted in examining and identifying future options for the intake of temporary and permanent migrants that improve the income, wealth and living standards of Australian citizens, improve the budgets and balance sheets of Australian governments, minimize administration and compliance costs associated with immigration, and provide pathways both for Australian citizens to be altruistic towards foreigners, and for Australia's international responsibilities and obligations to foreign residents to be met. Improvements in the labour laws would promote the effective integration of Indian immigrants into society. Further, Indians in the USA have contributed immensely to the entrepreneurial spirit due to the government support for migrant SMEs and the small business venture funds. The Australian government can replicate this policy, reduce restriction on employment opportunities and enhance entrepreneurship for all migrants.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Providing an affordable health insurance with adequate coverage of prenatal and delivery services, could reduce the financial burden, facilitate the access, and ensure the maternal and child health in this vulnerable population.
Abstract: An estimated 96% of registered refugees in Iran are Afghan. Almost half of them are young women at the reproductive age. The adequate maternity care is crucial for healthy pregnancy. There is limited knowledge regarding the access and adequacy of maternity care among Afghan women in Iran. The reports from ministry of health (MOH) implicate higher prevalence of perinatal complications in Afghan population. This mainly attributed to the inadequate prenatal care during pregnancy. Therefore, this paper explores the potential barriers to prenatal care among Afghan women in Iran. Using convenience sampling, thirty pregnant Afghan women were recruited at three community health centers with the highest number of Afghan visitors in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews in Persian language using an interview guide. The interviewers were two bilingual Afghan graduate midwifery students. Each interview lasted for an hour. The questions regarding the concerns and experienced obstacles in seeking prenatal care were asked. The interviews were transcribed into original language (Persian) and analyzed using content analysis and further translated back into English. The main themes were extracted grouping the similar codes and categories after careful consideration and consensus between the researchers. The financial constraints and lack of affordable health insurance with adequate coverage of prenatal care services, particularly the diagnostic and screening tests, were the most frequent reported obstacles by Afghan women. In addition, personnel behavior, transportation issues, stigma and discrimination, cultural concerns, legal and immigration issues were also mentioned as the source of disappointment and inadequate utilization of such services. The findings of present study emphasize the necessity of available and most importantly, affordable prenatal care for Afghan women in Iran. Providing an affordable health insurance with adequate coverage of prenatal and delivery services, could reduce the financial burden, facilitate the access, and ensure the maternal and child health in this vulnerable population. The issues of fear and concern of deportation must be removed for at least illegal Afghan mothers to ensure their access to maternity care and improve the health of both mother and offspring.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Little research has been conducted on the native immigrant fertility differential in low income settings. The objective of our paper is to examine the actual and ideal fertility differential of native and immigrant families in Assam. We used the data from a primary quantitative survey carried out in 52 villages in five districts of Assam during 2014–2015. We performed bivariate analysis and used a multilevel mixed effects linear regression model to analyse the actual and ideal fertility differential by type of village. The average number of children ever born is the lowest in native villages in contrast to the highest average number of children ever born in immigrant villages. The likelihood of having more children is also the highest among women in immigrant villages. However, the effect of religion surpasses the effect of the type of village the women reside in.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Post-1965 immigration to the United States has given rise to a vigorous literature focused on adult newcomers. There is, however, a growing new second generation whose prospects of adaptation cannot be gleaned from the experience of their parents or from that of children of European immigrants arriving at the turn of the century. We present data on the contemporary second generation and review the challenges that it confronts in seeking adaptation to American society. The concept of segmented assimilation is introduced to describe the diverse possible outcomes of this process of adaptation. The concept of modes of incorporation is used for developing a typology of vulnerability and resources affecting such outcomes. Empirical case studies illustrate the theory and highlight consequences of the different contextual situations facing today's second generation.

4,327 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the "immigrant paradox," whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes.
Abstract: This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the acculturation construct, as well as for its relationship to psychosocial and health outcomes, are discussed. In particular, an expanded operationalization of acculturation is needed to address the "immigrant paradox," whereby international migrants with more exposure to the receiving cultural context report poorer mental and physical health outcomes. We discuss the role of ethnicity, cultural similarity, and discrimination in the acculturation process, offer an operational definition for context of reception, and call for studies on the role that context of reception plays in the acculturation process. The new perspective on acculturation presented in this article is intended to yield a fuller understanding of complex acculturation processes and their relationships to contextual and individual functioning.

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DOI
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Abstract: Der Aufsatz ... berichtet uber einige der Hauptergebnisse einer grossen internationalen Studie (ICSEY) zur Akkulturation und Adaption von zugewanderten Jugendlichen im Alter von 13 bis 18 Jahren, die in 13 verschiedenen Aufnahmelandern (einschlieslich Deutschland) leben (n = 5.366). Weiterhin wurde eine Stichprobe von einheimischen (im Original: national) Jugendlichen (n = 2.631) untersucht. Die Analyse geht drei Kernfragen nach: Wie gehen die Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund mit dem Akkulturationsprozess um? Wie gut passen sich die Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund an die Gesellschaft und Schule des Aufnahmelandes an? Bestehen bedeutsame Beziehungen zwischen ihrer Akkulturationseinstellung und ihrer sozialen und schulischen Anpassung? Eine Clusteranalyse forderte vier unterschiedliche Profile von Akkulturationseinstellungen der Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund zutage: integrativ, ethnisch, national und diffus. Eine Faktorenanalyse von funf Adaptionsvariablen lies auf zwei verschiedene Formen der Adaption schliessen: psychisch und soziokulturell. Es zeigten sich substantielle Beziehungen zwischen den Akkulturationseinstellungen der Jugendlichen und ihrer Anpassung. Die Jugendlichen mit einem Integrationsprofil weisen die besten Ergebnisse in Bezug auf psychische (Wohlbefinden) und soziokulturelle (schulische und soziale) Adaption auf, wahrend diejenigen mit einem diffusen Akkulturationseinstellungsprofil die ungunstigsten Ergebnisse erreichen. Dazwischen liegen die Jugendlichen mit einem ethnischen Profil, deren Anpassung in Bezug auf ihr Wohlbefinden recht gut, ihre soziale und schulische Anpassung jedoch schlechter ist. Ebenfalls dazwischen liegen die Jugendlichen mit einem nationalen Profil, deren Adaption in psychischer Hinsicht eher ungunstig ist und in soziokultureller Hinsicht eine leicht negative Tendenz aufweist. Dieses Ergebnismuster konnte durch Strukturgleichungsmodelle weitgehend bestatigt werden. Weiterhin zeigen die Analysen dieser Studie, dass wahrgenommene Diskriminierung sowohl mit psychischer als auch mit sozialer Anpassung negativ zusammen hangt und einen stark segregierenden Effekt auf Migranten hat. Die Schlussfolgerungen der Untersuchung fur das Leben der Jugendlichen in einer Einwanderungsgesellschaft sind klar: Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund sollten ermutigt werden, einen Bezug zu ihrer Herkunftskultur zu erhalten und gleichzeitig enge Verbindungen zur Aufnahmegesellschaft aufzubauen. (DIPF/Orig.).

1,500 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The issues and controversies surrounding the development of the segmented assimilation theory are examined and the state of recent empirical research relevant to this theoretical approach is reviewed.
Abstract: The segmented assimilation theory offers a theoretical framework for understanding the process by which the new second generation – the children of contemporary immigrants – becomes incorporated in

1,343 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Cet article presente plusieurs des principaux resultats d’une grande etude internationale sur l’acculturation et l’adaptation de jeunes immigres (âges de 13 a 18 ans) qui se sont implantes dans treize pays (N = 5,366); il y est adjoint un echantillon de jeunes nationaux (N = 2,631). La recherche s’appuyait sur trois questions centrales: comment les jeunes migrants gerent-ils le processus d’acculturation? Comment parviennent-ils a s’adapter? Et y a-t-il un lien manifeste entre la forme d’acculturation et le succes de l’adaptation? L’analyse en clusters deboucha sur quatre profils d’acculturation: integrateur, ethnique, national et diffus. L’analyse factorielle de cinq variables d’adaptation mit en evidence deux types d’adaptation: psychologique et socioculturel. Il existe une forte relation entre la facon dont les jeunes s’acculturent et leur adaptation: ceux qui presentent un profil integrateur beneficient des meilleurs indicateurs d’adaptations psychologique et socioculturelle alors que ceux souffrant d’un profil diffus ont les pires. Entre les deux, le profil ethnique presente une adaptation psychologique relativement bonne et une adaptation socioculturelle plutot pauvre, tandis que le profil national a une adaptation psychologique relativement pauvre et une adaptation socioculturelle legerement negative. Cette configuration de resultats fut en grande partie retrouvee a travers une modelisation en equation structurelle. Les consequences pour l’implantation des jeunes immigres sont claires: ils devraient etre encourages a preserver l’appartenance a leur culture d’origine tout en etablissant des liens etroits avec la societe d’accueil. This paper reports some of the main findings from a large international study of the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant youth (aged 13 to 18 years) who are settled in 13 societies (N= 5,366), as well as a sample of national youth (N= 2,631). The study was guided by three core questions: How do immigrant youth deal with the process of acculturation? How well do they adapt? Are there important relationships between how they acculturate and how well they adapt? Cluster analysis produced four distinct acculturation profiles: integration, ethnic, national, and diffuse. Factor analysis of five adaptation variables revealed two distinct forms of adaptation: psychological and sociocultural. There were substantial relationships between how youth acculturate and how well they adapt: those with an integration profile had the best psychological and sociocultural adaptation outcomes, while those with a diffuse profile had the worst; in between, those with an ethnic profile had moderately good psychological adaptation but poorer sociocultural adaptation, while those with a national profile had moderately poor psychological adaptation, and slightly negative sociocultural adaptation. This pattern of results was largely replicated using structural equation modeling. Implications for the settlement of immigrant youth are clear: youth should be encouraged to retain both a sense of their own heritage cultural identity, while establishing close ties with the larger national society.

1,300 citations