# 소형 안테나 ( Small Antennas )

01 Dec 1992-Vol. 3, Iss: 2, pp 79-83

About: The article was published on 1992-12-01 and is currently open access. It has received 298 citations till now.

##### Citations

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TL;DR: An overview of antenna design for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented, which outlines a generic design process including range measurement techniques and focuses on one practical application: RFID tag for box tracking in warehouses.

Abstract: In this paper, an overview of antenna design for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented. We discuss various requirements of such designs, outline a generic design process including range measurement techniques and concentrate on one practical application: RFID tag for box tracking in warehouses. A loaded meander antenna design for this application is described and its various practical aspects such as sensitivity to fabrication process and box content are analyzed. Modeling and simulation results are also presented which are in good agreement with measurement data.

1,268 citations

### Cites background from "소형 안테나 ( Small Antennas )"

...Since antenna size and frequency of operation impose limitations on maximum attainable gain and bandwidth [13], [14] compromises have to be made to obtain optimum tag performance to satisfy design requirements....

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TL;DR: In this paper, a metamaterial paradigm for achieving an efficient, electrically small antenna is introduced Spherical shells of homogenous, isotropic negative permittivity (ENG) material are designed to create a resonant system for several antennas: an infinitesimal electric dipole, a very short center-fed cylindrical electric dipoles, and a coaxially-fed electric monopole over an infinite ground plane.

Abstract: A metamaterial paradigm for achieving an efficient, electrically small antenna is introduced Spherical shells of homogenous, isotropic negative permittivity (ENG) material are designed to create electrically small resonant systems for several antennas: an infinitesimal electric dipole, a very short center-fed cylindrical electric dipole, and a very short coaxially-fed electric monopole over an infinite ground plane Analytical and numerical models demonstrate that a properly designed ENG shell provides a distributed inductive element resonantly matched to these highly capacitive electrically small antennas, ie, an ENG shell can be designed to produce an electrically small system with a zero input reactance and an input resistance that is matched to a specified source resistance leading to overall efficiencies approaching unity Losses and dispersion characteristics of the ENG materials are also included in the analytical models Finite element numerical models of the various antenna-ENG shell systems are developed and used to predict their input impedances These electrically small antenna-ENG shell systems with idealized dispersionless ENG material properties are shown to be very efficient and to have fractional bandwidths above the values associated with the Chu limit for the quality factor without any degradation in the radiation patterns of the antennas Introducing dispersion and losses into the analytical models, the resulting bandwidths are shown to be reduced significantly, but remain slightly above (below) the corresponding Chu-based value for an energy-based limiting (Drude) dispersion model of the permittivity of the ENG shell

519 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the behavior of the small fractal Koch monopole is numerically and experimentally analyzed, and it is shown that as the number of iterations on the small Koch monopoles are increased, the Q of the antenna approaches the fundamental limit for small antennas.

Abstract: Fractal objects have some unique geometrical properties. One of them is the possibility to enclose in a finite area an infinitely long curve. The resulting curve is highly convoluted being nowhere differentiable. One such curve is the Koch curve. In this paper, the behavior the Koch monopole is numerically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that as the number of iterations on the small fractal Koch monopole are increased, the Q of the antenna approaches the fundamental limit for small antennas.

457 citations

### Additional excerpts

...Prior to Chu’s work, Wheeler introduced the Power Factor (PF) concept to characterize small antennas [10], [13]....

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TL;DR: Active integrated antenna (AIA) technologies have been extensively studied in the past decade or so as discussed by the authors, with a brief introduction on the definition and some historical remarks on the research effort on the past decades or so.

Abstract: This paper provide a review of the active integrated antenna (AIA) technologies. After a brief introduction on the definition and some historical remarks, the paper concentrates on the research effort on the past decades or so. The AlAs are reviewed in its various functions. First, an oscillator-type AIA is presented, followed by very interesting aspects of coupled oscillator arrays for phase control. Use of an AIA concept for efficient RF front ends is described with examples on high-power amplifier AlAs. Next, a phase-conjugation-based retrodirective array is reviewed. Finally, AIA systems for receiving, transmitting, and duplexing are reviewed.

436 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of surrounding an electrically small dipole antenna with a shell of double negative (DNG) material has been investigated both analytically and numerically, and it is shown that a properly designed dipole-DNG shell combination increases the real power radiated by more than an order of magnitude over the corresponding free space case.

Abstract: The effect of surrounding an electrically small dipole antenna with a shell of double negative (DNG) material (/spl epsiv//sub r/<0 and /spl mu//sub r/<0) has been investigated both analytically and numerically. The problem of an infinitesimal electric dipole embedded in a homogeneous DNG medium is treated; its analytical solution shows that this electrically small antenna acts inductively rather than capacitively as it would in free space. It is then shown that a properly designed dipole-DNG shell combination increases the real power radiated by more than an order of magnitude over the corresponding free space case. The reactance of the antenna is shown to have a corresponding decrease. Analysis of the reactive power within this dipole-DNG shell system indicates that the DNG shell acts as a natural matching network for the dipole. An equivalent circuit model is introduced that confirms this explanation. Several cases are presented to illustrate these results. The difficult problem of interpreting the energy stored in this dipole-DNG shell system when the DNG medium is frequency independent and, hence, of calculating the radiation Q is discussed from several points of view.

431 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: In this paper, the physical limitations of omni-directional antennas are considered and the potentiality of a broad band width of an antenna with the maximum dimension of 2a has been shown.

Abstract: The physical limitations of omni‐directional antennas are considered. With the use of the spherical wave functions to describe the field, the directivity gain G and the Q of an unspecified antenna are calculated under idealized conditions. To obtain the optimum performance, three criteria are used, (1) maximum gain for a given complexity of the antenna structure, (2) minimum Q, (3) maximum ratio of G/Q. It is found that an antenna of which the maximum dimension is 2a has the potentiality of a broad band width provided that the gain is equal to or less than 4a/λ. To obtain a gain higher than this value, the Q of the antenna increases at an astronomical rate. The antenna which has potentially the broadest band width of all omni‐directional antennas is one which has a radiation pattern corresponding to that of an infinitesimally small dipole.

1,954 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of antenna design for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented, which outlines a generic design process including range measurement techniques and focuses on one practical application: RFID tag for box tracking in warehouses.

Abstract: In this paper, an overview of antenna design for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented. We discuss various requirements of such designs, outline a generic design process including range measurement techniques and concentrate on one practical application: RFID tag for box tracking in warehouses. A loaded meander antenna design for this application is described and its various practical aspects such as sensitivity to fabrication process and box content are analyzed. Modeling and simulation results are also presented which are in good agreement with measurement data.

1,268 citations

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01 Dec 1947

TL;DR: In this paper, a simple formula for the more fundamental properties of small antennas and their behavior in a simple circuit is given for 1-Mc operation in typical circuits, which indicates a loss of about 35 db for the I.R.E. standard capacitive antenna, 43 db for a large loop occupying a volume of 1 meter square by 0.5 meter axial length, and 64 db for an antenna loop of 1/5 these dimensions.

Abstract: A capacitor or inductor operating as a small antenna is theoretically capable of intercepting a certain amount of power, independent of its size, on the assumption of tuning without circuit loss. The practical efficiency relative to this ideal is limited by the "radiation power factor" of the antenna as compared with the power factor and bandwidth of the antenna tuning. The radiation power factor of either kind of antenna is somewhat greater than (1/6π) (Ab/l2) in which Ab is the cylindrical volume occupied by the antenna, and l is the radianlength (defined as 1/2π wavelength) at the operating frequency. The efficiency is further limited by the closeness of coupling of the antenna with its tuner. Other simple formulas are given for the more fundamental properties of small antennas and their behavior in a simple circuit. Examples for 1-Mc. operation in typical circuits indicate a loss of about 35 db for the I.R.E. standard capacitive antenna, 43 db for a large loop occupying a volume of 1 meter square by 0.5 meter axial length, and 64 db for a loop of 1/5 these dimensions.

1,249 citations

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01 Feb 1981

TL;DR: In this article, four fundamental limitations in antennas have been identified in the areas of: electrically small antennas, super-directive antenna, superresolution antennas, and high-pin antennas.

Abstract: Four fundamental limitations in antennas have been identified in the areas of: electrically small antennas, superdirective antennas, superresolution antennas, and high-pin antennas. All exhibit roughly exponential increase in cost factors with performance increase beyond the robust range. This paper reviews these limitations. Electrically small antennas are analyzed via spherical mode theory, with the antenna enclosed in a virtual sphere. Minimum Q varies inversely as the cube of sphere radius in radian wavelengths when the radius is much less than the latter. This limits the achievable bandwidth. Superdirective apertures require a constraint; the optimization is generally intractable except for line sources. Superdirective arrays have spacing below half-wavelength, and for small spacings a constraint is desirable to limit Q, tolerances, efficiency, sidelobes, etc. This is accomplished by expressing constrained directivity as a ratio of two Hermilian quadratic forms, for which a solution exists. Array Q varies exponentially with directivity so only modest increases are practical. Superresolution arrays use maximum entropy processes to improve spatial frequency resolution for short samples (short arrays), analogous to spectral analysis processing. An amplitude-tapered autocorrelation function is extended by linear least square prediction and autoregression; the latter contributes filter poles. This extension is with minimum added information, hence maximum entropy. In contrast to superdirective arrays which are all zero functions, superresolution maximum entropy uses an all pole function. Results are dependent upon the sampling subarray size and upon signal/noise (S/N). Required S/N increases exponentially with inverse angular resolution. Achievable gain of high-gain reflector antennas is limited by cost of the structure. For random surface errors maximum gain is proportional to the mechanical tolerance ratio (antenna diameter/1σ tolerance) squared. Since cost increases rapidly with diameter and with tolerance ratio this comprises a gain limitation. Current best reflectors have maximum gain in the range of 90 to 100 dB.

649 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, a metamaterial paradigm for achieving an efficient, electrically small antenna is introduced Spherical shells of homogenous, isotropic negative permittivity (ENG) material are designed to create a resonant system for several antennas: an infinitesimal electric dipole, a very short center-fed cylindrical electric dipoles, and a coaxially-fed electric monopole over an infinite ground plane.

Abstract: A metamaterial paradigm for achieving an efficient, electrically small antenna is introduced Spherical shells of homogenous, isotropic negative permittivity (ENG) material are designed to create electrically small resonant systems for several antennas: an infinitesimal electric dipole, a very short center-fed cylindrical electric dipole, and a very short coaxially-fed electric monopole over an infinite ground plane Analytical and numerical models demonstrate that a properly designed ENG shell provides a distributed inductive element resonantly matched to these highly capacitive electrically small antennas, ie, an ENG shell can be designed to produce an electrically small system with a zero input reactance and an input resistance that is matched to a specified source resistance leading to overall efficiencies approaching unity Losses and dispersion characteristics of the ENG materials are also included in the analytical models Finite element numerical models of the various antenna-ENG shell systems are developed and used to predict their input impedances These electrically small antenna-ENG shell systems with idealized dispersionless ENG material properties are shown to be very efficient and to have fractional bandwidths above the values associated with the Chu limit for the quality factor without any degradation in the radiation patterns of the antennas Introducing dispersion and losses into the analytical models, the resulting bandwidths are shown to be reduced significantly, but remain slightly above (below) the corresponding Chu-based value for an energy-based limiting (Drude) dispersion model of the permittivity of the ENG shell

519 citations