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Journal ArticleDOI

Solar control characteristics of Cu2Se coatings

14 Jun 1992-Journal of Physics D (IOP Publishing)-Vol. 25, Iss: 6, pp 981-985
TL;DR: In this article, the solar control properties of Cu2Se thin film coatings were investigated and the results are presented, which show that they exhibit superior solar control characteristics in certain respects over the metallic and PbS coatings and have comparable characteristics with CuxS films.
Abstract: Solar control coatings required for architectural glazing applications in tropical locations warrant much attention due to their vital role in energy conservation. The solar control properties of Cu2Se thin film coatings were investigated and the results are presented. It was observed that Cu2Se coatings have moderate optical transmittance and low reflectance in the visible region and high reflectance and low transmittance in the IR region. These characteristics are useful for the above purpose. The evaluation of their solar control parameters in the visible and IR region showed that they exhibit superior solar control characteristics in certain respects over the metallic and PbS coatings and have comparable characteristics with CuxS films.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive overview of the different complexing agents used to achieve control over the resultant morphology of CD metal chalcogenide thin films is provided in this paper, where the authors also provide a detailed analysis of the most commonly used ones.
Abstract: Among the chemical deposition methods to produce thin films, chemical deposition from aqueous solution (CD) is the oldest and most studied process in which the substrate is exposed to soluble precursors which react or decompose to produce the desired thin film material. An intricate balance of growth parameters is necessary to produce a good quality film. The presence of complexing agents ensures effective complexation of the metal cation in solution, leading to its slow release for preventing bulk precipitation. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the different complexing agents used to achieve control over the resultant morphology of CD metal chalcogenide thin films.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied, and the structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for evaluating and selecting the solar spectrum range to be absorbed by a photovoltaic cell to obtain a better relationship between radiation absorption and heating efficiency losses, in order to maximize the power generated by the cell.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of the different combinations of metal chalcogenide/chalcopyrite thin-film layers for HJ solar cells by CBD and achieving control over the resultant morphology, particularly focusing on interfacial epitaxial relationship, was presented.
Abstract: Heterojunction (HJ) thin-film II–VI solar cells are emergent substitutes to the traditional silicon solar cells because of improved efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A renewed interest in depositing the constituent layers employing chemical bath deposition (CBD) is shown because of the absence of any stringent reaction conditions which ensures the preservation of the properties of the constituent layers. Variation in the growth conditions has strong effects on the morphologies and the properties of the resultant films specially the interface. Inappropriate or alloyed interfaces may result in pinholes formation affecting the resultant electric field because of reduced junction area and enhanced recombination for carriers which in turn affects the efficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of the different combinations of metal chalcogenide/chalcopyrite thin-film layers for HJ solar cells by CBD and achieving control over the resultant morphology, particularly focusing on interfacial epitaxial relationship which is found to have substantial influence on the efficiency of the resultant cell. Graphical abstract Heterojunction (HJ) thin-film II–VI solar cells are emergent substitutes to the traditional silicon solar cells because of improved efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A renewed interest in depositing the constituent layers employing chemical bath deposition (CBD) is shown because of its simplicity and versatility. Variation in the growth conditions like temperature and the reagent concentrations have strong effects on the morphologies and the properties of the resultant films specially the interface. In this review, we provide an overview of the different combinations of metal chalcogenide/ chalcopyrite thin-film layers for HJ solar cells by CBD and achieving control over the resultant morphology and phase composition, particularly focusing on interfacial epitaxial relationship, which is found to have substantial influence on the efficiency of the resultant cell.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the formation of compound Cu2Se, at room temperature by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) was reported, where cyclic voltammograms were used to determine the deposition potentials of each element.
Abstract: Electrochemical atomic-layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) is an approach to electrodepositing thin-films of compound semiconductors. It takes advantage of underpotential deposition (UPD), deposition of a surface limited amount (a monolayer or less) of an element at a potential less negative than bulk deposition, to form a thin-film of a compound--one atomic layer at a time. Ideally, the 2-D growth mode should promote epitaxial deposition. We report the formation of compound Cu2Se, at room temperature by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Cyclic voltammograms were used to determine the deposition potentials of each element. An automated deposition program was used to form 750 cycles of Cu2Se thin films. Electron probe microanalysis was done to determine the stoichiometry of the thin films. X-ray diffraction of the 200 cycle deposit indicated the presence of polycrystalline Cu2Se. The atomic ratio of Cu/Se in the thin films was found to be 2. Band gap of the thin films were determined by reflection absorption measurements. The band gap of the 200 cycle Cu2Se films was found to be 1.6 eV. X-ray diffraction of 350 and 750 cycle Cu2Se films, indicated the deposits consisted of Cu3Se2 and Cu2Se.

7 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a range of combination of rsquare operator approximately 30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately 1 to 65 and a color of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH.
Abstract: CuxS thin films with a wide range of sheet resistances (rSquare Operator ) and optical transmittance (T%), indicating different composition x, have been obtained from chemical baths constituted from copper(II) chloride, triethanolamine and thiourea at appropriate pH (10-12). Depending on the deposition parameters, a range of combination of rSquare Operator approximately=30 Omega to 1 M Omega and T% (500 nm) approximately=1 to 65 and a range of colour of reflected daylight (golden yellow, purple, blue, green, etc.) can be obtained. The films have been found to be stable with respect to electrical and optical properties on storage under ambient. Various possible large area applications such as in architectural glazing, photothermal and photovoltaic conversions are discussed.

168 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the basic requirements of solar control coatings are presented and a comparison of the characteristics of PbS and CuxS coatings against commercially available coatings is provided.
Abstract: Solar control coatings, required for architectural glazing applications in warm climates, must provide controlled optical transmission ( approximately 10-50%) of the solar radiation in the visible region and should reflect efficiently in the infrared (>0.7 mu m) region to create a cool interior in the buildings. Thin films of PbS and CuxS on glass substrates, deposited from chemical baths, are shown to possess excellent solar control characteristics-superior or comparable to the metallic solar control coatings. For example, for an acceptable range of integrated optical transmittance ( approximately 10-20%) in the visible region, the integrated infrared reflectance for AM2 solar spectrum for the different glazings are: PbS coated glass, 50%; CuxS coated glass, 14%; stainless steel/Cu coated glass, 25% and tinted glass, 4%. The CuxS and PbS coatings also have the advantage of giving pleasant reflected colours (golden, purple, blue, etc), which improves the cosmetic appearance. This paper presents the basic requirements of solar control coatings and provides a comparison of the characteristics of PbS and CuxS coatings against commercially available coatings.

138 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the safety and cost and the optimisation of chemically deposited PbS thin films for solar control applications are presented. But the results of the analysis are limited to the case of 3 mm thick clear glass with a shading coefficient of approximately 50%.
Abstract: Assessments of safety and cost and the optimisation of chemically deposited PbS thin films for solar control applications are presented. The maximum integrated infrared reflectance, 44%, is obtained at a PbS thin film thickness of approximately=95 nm. The corresponding value of the solar control parameters (AM2 case) are: integrated infrared transmittance, 45%; integrated visible transmittance, 17% (yellowish appearance); integrated visible reflectance, 21% (purple appearance); and integrated solar absorptance, 36%. The total solar radiation and heat transfer into the building through a glazing with such a PbS coating is less than 44%, as compared with the approximately=84% of 3 mm thick clear glass, giving a shading coefficient of approximately=50%. A film thickness of 95 nm is obtainable with a deposition time of 50 min from a bath (at 24 degrees C) containing Pb2+ ions and thiourea in the 1:3 molar ratio. However, molar ratios up to 1:5 may be employed, thereby enabling the reduction of deposition time to 35 min. Analyses of the safety and the cost of these coatings have shown excellent promise for their application as medium-efficiency low-cost solar control coatings appropriate for small-scale industrial and 'do-it-yourself' production of the coatings.

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the electrical and optical properties of thin films of highly doped oxides of In and Sn were investigated and the free electron mobility was limited mainly by ionized impurity scattering.

77 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, chemical deposition of lead sulfide thin films on glass substrates was used to satisfy the basic requirements for solar control coatings for window glazing applications in warm climates, where a low transmittance ( ∼10% to 30% ) in the visible region is coupled with an appreciable reflectance for infrared radiation.

65 citations