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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00122-021-03789-Z

Sorghum breeding in the genomic era: opportunities and challenges

02 Mar 2021-Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 134, Iss: 7, pp 1899-1924
Abstract: The importance and potential of the multi-purpose crop sorghum in global food security have not yet been fully exploited, and the integration of the state-of-art genomics and high-throughput technologies into breeding practice is required. Sorghum, a historically vital staple food source and currently the fifth most important major cereal, is emerging as a crop with diverse end-uses as food, feed, fuel and forage and a model for functional genetics and genomics of tropical grasses. Rapid development in high-throughput experimental and data processing technologies has significantly speeded up sorghum genomic researches in the past few years. The genomes of three sorghum lines are available, thousands of genetic stocks accessible and various genetic populations, including NAM, MAGIC, and mutagenised populations released. Functional and comparative genomics have elucidated key genetic loci and genes controlling agronomical and adaptive traits. However, the knowledge gained has far away from being translated into real breeding practices. We argue that the way forward is to take a genome-based approach for tailored designing of sorghum as a multi-functional crop combining excellent agricultural traits for various end uses. In this review, we update the new concepts and innovation systems in crop breeding and summarise recent advances in sorghum genomic researches, especially the genome-wide dissection of variations in genes and alleles for agronomically important traits. Future directions and opportunities for sorghum breeding are highlighted to stimulate discussion amongst sorghum academic and industrial communities.

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Topics: Population (51%), Sorghum (50%)
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13068-021-02016-7
Yuanming Liu1, Zhonghuang Wang1, Xiaoyuan Wu1, Junwei Zhu  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: As the fifth major cereal crop originated from Africa, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has become a key C4 model organism for energy plant research With the development of high-throughput detection technologies for various omics data, much multi-dimensional and multi-omics information has been accumulated for sorghum Integrating this information may accelerate genetic research and improve molecular breeding for sorghum agronomic traits We updated the Sorghum Genome SNP Database (SorGSD) by adding new data, new features and renamed it to Sorghum Genome Science Database (SorGSD) In comparison with the original version SorGSD, which contains SNPs from 48 sorghum accessions mapped to the reference genome BTx623 (v21), the new version was expanded to 289 sorghum lines with both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (INDELs), which were aligned to the newly assembled and annotated sorghum genome BTx623 (v31) Moreover, phenotypic data and panicle pictures of critical accessions were provided in the new version We implemented new tools including ID Conversion, Homologue Search and Genome Browser for analysis and updated the general information related to sorghum research, such as online sorghum resources and literature references In addition, we deployed a new database infrastructure and redesigned a new user interface as one of the Genome Variation Map databases The new version SorGSD is freely accessible online at http://ngdccncbaccn/sorgsd/ SorGSD is a comprehensive integration with large-scale genomic variation, phenotypic information and incorporates online data analysis tools for data mining, genome navigation and analysis We hope that SorGSD could provide a valuable resource for sorghum researchers to find variations they are interested in and generate customized high-throughput datasets for further analysis

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Topics: Genome browser (60%), Reference genome (57%), dbSNP (50%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11627-021-10215-Y
Abstract: Sorghum is a versatile crop with great potential as a sustainable food, feed, and bioenergy source. To mitigate the severely negative impact of climate change and population growth on food and energy security, further elevation of the crops stress tolerance is urgently needed. Genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas have great potential to accelerate functional genomics and crop improvement by supporting targeted modification of almost any crop gene sequence. We describe the recent progress in genome editing of sorghum. In addition, we review remaining challenges and prospects of emerging gene editing technologies for rapid precision breeding of this crop.

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Topics: Genome editing (54%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/BIOT.202100237
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the world's most cultivated cereal crops. Biotechnology approaches have great potential to complement traditional crop improvement. Earlier studies in rice and maize revealed that LIGULELESS-1 (LG1) is responsible for formation of the ligule and auricle, which determine the leaf inclination angle. However, generation and analysis of lg1 mutants in sorghum has so far not been described. Here, we describe CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis of LG1 in sorghum and phenotypic changes in mono- and bi-allelic lg1 mutants. Genome editing reagents were co-delivered to sorghum (var. Tx430) with the nptII selectable marker via particle bombardment of immature embryos followed by regeneration of transgenic plants. Sanger sequencing confirmed a single nucleotide insertion in the sgRNA LG1 target site. Monoallelic edited plantlets displayed more upright leaves in tissue culture and after transfer to soil when compared to wild type. T1 progeny plants with biallelic lg1 mutation lacked ligules entirely and displayed a more severe reduction in leaf inclination angle than monoallelic mutants. Transgene-free lg1 mutants devoid of the genome editing vector were also recovered in the segregating T1 generation. Targeted mutagenesis of LG1 provides a rapidly scorable phenotype in tissue culture and will facilitate optimization of genome editing protocols. Altering leaf inclination angle also has the potential to elevate yield in high-density plantings.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.INDCROP.2021.113917
Abstract: Agricultural residues are emerging as a viable biomass resource for various industries and applications due to their abundant growth, relatively low starting value, and suitability for integration into a biorefinery system, alongside their fast regeneration time. Further, their favourable biochemical composition with a relatively high hemicellulose and low lignin content enables sustainable processing into cellulose nanofibres (CNF). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a highly adapted and widely bred agricultural crop with drought resistance, lodging tolerance, high biomass production, and excellent nitrogen usage efficiency. To introduce sorghum agricultural residues as a sustainable biomass resource for CNF production, four phenotypically diverse sorghum varieties (Sugargraze, Yemen, GreenleafBMR, Graingrass) were selected, grown, harvested, and separated into 4 different plant sections (leaf, sheath, stem( 1 m)). Each sample within this biomass library underwent a mild NaOH treatment (2%, 80 °C, 2 h), followed by high pressure homogenisation at 3 subsequent energy levels (Low, Medium, High). Tracking the evolution of nanopaper material properties over this mechanical processing series, we found the average tensile strength of sorghum-derived CNF nanopaper ranged from 51 to 115 Nm/g. GreenleafBMR and Graingrass stem produced the strongest nanopaper, Yemen consistently produced tough nanopaper, and sheath sections were highly amenable to nanofibrillation at relatively low energy input. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of sorghum-derived CNF quantified the fibre width across all samples to range from ∼6 nm – 5.4 μm. Sorghum-derived cellulose nanofibres present outstanding material performance under low chemical and energy input processing, launching sorghum as a compelling biomass resource for sustainable nanomaterial production.

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Topics: Biomass (54%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PS.6644
Abstract: Grain sorghum is a versatile crop, which can thrive under limited water and other inputs. However, crop loss from weed infestation continues to be a major constraint in grain sorghum production. Particularly, post-emergence grass weed control is a great challenge in grain sorghum due to the lack of herbicide options. Unlike in other major crops, such as maize or soybean, herbicide-resistant sorghum technology that can facilitate weed control throughout crop growing season is not available to growers yet. The development of herbicide-resistant sorghum can have potential to improve weed management, including post-emergence grass weed control. One of the major concerns in the development of such technology in sorghum is escape of resistance traits into weedy relatives of sorghum (e.g. shattercane and johnsongrass). This review focuses on sources of herbicide resistance in sorghum, the status of the development of herbicide-resistant sorghum technologies, overview of breeding methods, and limitations in the development of such sorghum technology as well as economic benefits for sorghum growers. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

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Topics: Sorghum (61%)
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208 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/157.4.1819
01 Apr 2001-Genetics
Abstract: Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques will make dense marker maps available and genotyping many individuals for these markers feasible. Here we attempted to estimate the effects of ∼50,000 marker haplotypes simultaneously from a limited number of phenotypic records. A genome of 1000 cM was simulated with a marker spacing of 1 cM. The markers surrounding every 1-cM region were combined into marker haplotypes. Due to finite population size (Ne = 100), the marker haplotypes were in linkage disequilibrium with the QTL located between the markers. Using least squares, all haplotype effects could not be estimated simultaneously. When only the biggest effects were included, they were overestimated and the accuracy of predicting genetic values of the offspring of the recorded animals was only 0.32. Best linear unbiased prediction of haplotype effects assumed equal variances associated to each 1-cM chromosomal segment, which yielded an accuracy of 0.73, although this assumption was far from true. Bayesian methods that assumed a prior distribution of the variance associated with each chromosome segment increased this accuracy to 0.85, even when the prior was not correct. It was concluded that selection on genetic values predicted from markers could substantially increase the rate of genetic gain in animals and plants, especially if combined with reproductive techniques to shorten the generation interval.

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Topics: Genetic marker (55%), Genetic gain (53%), Linkage disequilibrium (51%) ... show more

5,158 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07723
Andrew H. Paterson1, John E. Bowers1, Rémy Bruggmann2, Inna Dubchak3  +47 moreInstitutions (18)
29 Jan 2009-Nature
Abstract: Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approximately 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approximately 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approximately 75% larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approximately 70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum-rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24% of genes are grass-specific and 7% are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

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Topics: Genome size (56%), Sweet sorghum (56%), Sorghum (53%) ... show more

2,577 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.277.5329.1063
Steven D. Tanksley1, Susan R. McCouch1Institutions (1)
22 Aug 1997-Science
Abstract: Nearly a century has been spent collecting and preserving genetic diversity in plants. Germplasm banks-living seed collections that serve as repositories of genetic variation-have been established as a source of genes for improving agricultural crops. Genetic linkage maps have made it possible to study the chromosomal locations of genes for improving yield and other complex traits important to agriculture. The tools of genome research may finally unleash the genetic potential of our wild and cultivated germplasm resources for the benefit of society.

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Topics: Germplasm (61%), Genetic diversity (57%), Genetic variation (51%) ... show more

2,067 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSTB.2007.2170
Abstract: DNA markers have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding via marker-assisted selection (MAS). The large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping studies for diverse crops species have provided an abundance of DNA marker–trait associations. In this review, we present an overview of the advantages of MAS and its most widely used applications in plant breeding, providing examples from cereal crops. We also consider reasons why MAS has had only a small impact on plant breeding so far and suggest ways in which the potential of MAS can be realized. Finally, we discuss reasons why the greater adoption of MAS in the future is inevitable, although the extent of its use will depend on available resources, especially for orphan crops, and may be delayed in less-developed countries. Achieving a substantial impact on crop improvement by MAS represents the great challenge for agricultural scientists in the next few decades.

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1,504 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1104/PP.108.118232
Stephen P. Moose1, Rita H. Mumm1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 2008-Plant Physiology
Abstract: The fundamental discoveries of Darwin and Mendel established the scientific basis for plant breeding and genetics at the turn of the 20th century. Similarly, the recent integration of advances in biotechnology, genomic research, and molecular marker applications with conventional plant breeding

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Topics: Molecular breeding (68%)

995 Citations


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