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Proceedings ArticleDOI

SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for auditory enrichment

04 Dec 2018-

TL;DR: This workshop was designed to offer participants an opportunity to explore different kinds of auditory enrichment for a range of animals in different environments by brainstorming ideas and developing concepts into well-designed blueprints for prototype devices.

AbstractThis workshop was designed to offer participants an opportunity to explore different kinds of auditory enrichment for a range of animals in different environments. Teams of participants worked together on a small set of briefs provided by domain experts, brainstorming ideas and developing concepts into well-designed blueprints for prototype devices. The day was organized along the lines of a traditional game jam.

Topics: Brainstorming (51%)

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • Animals have evolved forms of communication that work in a species-specific environmental context – gestures that can be observed from a range of distances, olfactory cues that can be “posted” and remain until they dissipate, vocalisations and other acoustic signals that act immediately but in some cases with great range, enabling remote contact with conspecifics.
  • Without humans contributing to the Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.
  • As human populations expand over the globe, these “natural-sounding” places are slowly disappearing.
  • It follows that if a social species is housed independently or with a smaller number of conspecifics than would naturally occur in the wild, it is possible that their acoustic repertoire will be diminished, along with the cognitive processing required to discriminate between a range of sounds.

Motivation

  • Animals living in manmade environments may need protecting from anthropophonic noise.
  • Many examples of auditory enrichment involve keepers (and researchers) selecting and playing sounds to the animals in their care.
  • Suspended straw Asian elephant family browsing at Dublin Zoo, 2016, also known as Fig 2.
  • This could have the additional benefit of enabling designers to learn more about user preferences.
  • Several ACI researchers are making progress in this direction.

Aims and activities

  • ▪ Raise awareness of the value of auditory enrichment amongst the ACI community and beyond, also known as The workshop aims to.
  • ▪ Provide opportunities for networking and creative teamwork.
  • Structured workshop activities enabling people from different backgrounds to meet and discuss specific challenges in the field of auditory enrichment – starting with brainstorming sessions where participants work together to imagine concepts in response to the briefs.
  • Opportunity to present final designs and answer questions ▪.

Biographies

  • Fiona French is a senior lecturer in the School of Computing and Digital Media at London Metropolitan University.
  • She is course leader for BSc Computer Games Programming and has organised several gamejams and other play related public events.
  • Her research interests include Animal Computer Interaction, physical computing and toy and game design and development.
  • Reinhard Gupfinger is a university assistant and PhD candidate researcher at the Tangible Music Lab at the University for Art and Design Linz, Austria.
  • He has been researching how to use acoustic signals to better understand animals and the environment, focusing in particular on analysis of soundscapes to assess biodiversity.

Call for participation

  • This workshop aims to bring together expertise from different disciplines, enabling participants to network and move towards designing and developing exciting new auditory enrichment experiences for a range of animals.
  • The structure will follow the format of previous years’ ZooJam and FarmJam workshops [4] [3], which generated a broad range of innovative enrichment concepts in a relatively short time period.
  • The gamejam format shapes the design process by offering both accelerated and constrained design [6] [8] with different rewards for different participants – some focused on outcomes, others on creativity, some on having learning opportunities, others on networking and finding potential research collaborators.
  • To facilitate this, the workshop outputs will be shared publicly.
  • This is an opportunity for those with an interest in animal welfare to share ideas and explore the potential of using acoustic technology to enhance enrichment.

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SoundJam 2018: Acoustic Design For
Auditory Enrichment
Abstract
This workshop is designed to offer participants an
opportunity to explore different kinds of auditory
enrichment for a range of animals in different
environments. Teams of participants will work together
on a small set of briefs provided by domain experts,
brainstorming ideas and developing concepts into well-
designed blueprints for prototype devices. The day will
be organized along the lines of a traditional gamejam.
Author Keywords
ACI, audition, environmental enrichment, auditory
enrichment, acoustic design, gamejam, workshop,
physical computing.
ACM Classification Keywords
H.5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g.,
HCI): Miscellaneous.
Introduction
Animals have evolved forms of communication
(signaling) that work in a species-specific
environmental context gestures that can be observed
from a range of distances, olfactory cues that can be
“posted” and remain until they dissipate, vocalisations
and other acoustic signals that act immediately but in
some cases with great range, enabling remote contact
with conspecifics. Without humans contributing to the
Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that
copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights
for third-party components of this work must be honored. For all other
uses, contact the Owner/Author.
ACI2018, December 4-6, 2018, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
© 2018 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).
Fiona French
London Metropolitan University,
166-220 Holloway Rd,
London, UK
f.french@londonmet.ac.uk
Reinhard Gupfinger
Tangible Music Lab
Institute of Media Studies
University of Art and Design Linz
Domgasse 1, 4010 Linz, Austria
reinhard.gupfinger@ufg.at
Paul Kendrick
Acoustics Research Centre
Room 105, Newton Building,
University of Salford,
Salford M5 4WT, UK
p.kendrick@salford.ac.uk

soundscape, their auditory perception and associated
cognitive abilities would have evolved in relation to
what was audible in the surrounding ecosystem.
As human populations expand over the globe, these
“natural-sounding” places are slowly disappearing.
People use sound insulating techniques to protect their
homes and working environments from sound pollution,
but animals living in urban and confined spaces must or
indeed our proximity, it can be argued that we have a
duty to consider their acoustic well-being as part of our
attention to their welfare and environment.
On the other hand, many non-human animals also
make a considerable amount of noise, particularly those
living in social groups. Since natural behaviour includes
demonstrating the ability to both make signals and
interpret others’ signals, it is important that an animal
has both the opportunity and the motivation to perform
this behaviour. It follows that if a social species is
housed independently or with a smaller number of
conspecifics than would naturally occur in the wild, it is
possible that their acoustic repertoire will be
diminished, along with the cognitive processing
required to discriminate between a range of sounds.
As a consequence of these issues, auditory enrichment
for animals in captivity can take two distinct forms
negative, whereby noise levels are reduced, dampened
or masked in order to protect animals from intrusive
sounds (which could be of human origin or generated
by a nearby predator species), and positive, when
animals are offered acoustic experiences in order to
give them sensory, cognitive or social stimulation.
The workshop will focus on the design of auditory
enrichment for a small selection of different animals.
Motivation
Animals living in manmade environments may need
protecting from anthropophonic noise. Current
research in this area includes passive acoustic
monitoring where soundscapes are captured and
analysed to infer environmental parameters (Figs 3 &
4) [13], as well as animal behavioural studies [10].
Sensory enrichment uses devices which generate
visual, olfactory, tactile and acoustic stimuli.
Depending on the type of device, environmental
enrichment can encompass different categories thus,
a puzzle feeder (Fig. 1) might simultaneously provide
cognitive, food, olfactory and tactile enrichment; a
suspended straw bale (Fig. 2) could offer food
(foraging), exercise and social opportunities.
Many examples of auditory enrichment involve keepers
(and researchers) selecting and playing sounds to the
animals in their care. Captive gorillas have shown
preference for natural sounds over either silence or
music (rock or classical) [12], while captive
chimpanzees preferred silence to music [15], as did
captive moloch gibbons [14]. On the other hand,
Vivaldi (classical) had an observable calming effect on
zebrafish [6], “classical music” seemed to reduce
stereotypic behaviour in zoo-housed elephants [16],
while soft rock and reggae has been documented as
reducing stress in kennel-housed dogs [2].
There are many studies in which the purpose of the
enrichment is to calm an animal, in which case it makes
However, a device designed for auditory enrichment
Cross-category
enrichment
Fig 1: Puzzle feeder
Capuchin explores pocket filled
with ice and strawberries,
Lakefield Monkey Sanctuary,
2014.
Courtesy Fiona French.
Fig 2: Suspended straw
Asian elephant family browsing at
Dublin Zoo, 2016.
Courtesy Fiona French

could have the potential to stimulate cognitive activity
if the target species was offered a control mechanism
that enabled interactivity. This could have the
additional benefit of enabling designers to learn more
about user preferences.
Several ACI researchers are making progress in this
direction. For example, Gupfinger and Kaltenbrunner
have developed interactive acoustic devices for captive
grey parrots (Fig. 5), which allow the birds to make
choices about generating sounds and music, with the
aim of gaining insight into how grey parrots perceive
and respond to different auditory stimuli [5]. Pons et al.
have focused on an exploration of orangutan behaviour
in relation to tangible objects with sound-controlling
properties [9]. This is specifically in order to offer
control and choice to the orangutans using moveable
objects that they freely manipulate as part of their
normal behaviour.
Biological salience is mentioned by Mancini and
Lehtonen [7] as a key factor in ACI design, and this
feature is reinforced by Ritvo and Allison [11] who
claim that ACI systems should be designed to mimic
and augment the user species’ natural behavioural
tendencies. These examples also showcase the
importance of volition and choice when designing sonic
enrichment, factors emphasised by Mancini and
Lehtonen. We believe that research in this area opens
up the possibility for redefining aesthetics so that it is
possible to take a more species-centric approach to ACI
design.
Aims and activities
The workshop aims to:
Raise awareness of the value of auditory enrichment
amongst the ACI community and beyond.
Provide opportunities for networking and creative
teamwork.
Investigate novels ways of using technology to
support auditory enrichment
Examine briefs (challenges) relating to different
species.
Generate novel acoustic designs in response to
briefs.
Produce and present design documentation.
We plan to undertake the following activities during the
event:
Brief introductions for participants and members of
organizing committee.
Structured workshop activities enabling people from
different backgrounds to meet and discuss specific
challenges in the field of auditory enrichment
starting with brainstorming sessions where
participants work together to imagine concepts in
response to the briefs.
Discussion of initial ideas leading to formation of
small teams focusing on collaborative design briefs
and creating early phase concepts.
Opportunity to present final designs and answer
questions
We plan to share the outcomes of the workshop in a
repository of ideas and support future collaborations
by keeping a record of participants’ skills and
interests. There will be a website dedicated to the
workshop and we will publicise it via our mailing lists
and personal contacts.
Technology supporting
auditory enrichment
Fig 3 and 4: Songmeter and
annotated soundscape
Installed at Mersey Gateway.
Courtesy Paul Kendrick
Fig 5: Grey parrot toy
Courtesy Reinhard Gupfinger

www.zoojam.org/soundjam
Biographies
Fiona French is a senior lecturer in the School of
Computing and Digital Media at London Metropolitan
University. She is course leader for BSc Computer
Games Programming and has organised several
gamejams and other play related public events. Her
research interests include Animal Computer Interaction,
physical computing and toy and game design and
development. Fiona is currently investigating the design
of playful interactive systems for elephants, as part of a
PhD in the Animal Computer Interaction Lab at The
Open University.
Reinhard Gupfinger is a university assistant and PhD
candidate researcher at the Tangible Music Lab at the
University for Art and Design Linz, Austria. He is
undertaking a study in the context of Animal Computer
Interaction (ACI) by designing musical instruments for
grey parrots.
Paul Kendrick is an acoustic engineer, with a research
focus in AI (machine audition). He has been
researching how to use acoustic signals to better
understand animals and the environment, focusing in
particular on analysis of soundscapes to assess
biodiversity.
Call for participation
This workshop aims to bring together expertise from
different disciplines, enabling participants to network
and move towards designing and developing exciting
new auditory enrichment experiences for a range of
animals.
The structure will follow the format of previous years
ZooJam and FarmJam workshops [4] [3], which
generated a broad range of innovative enrichment
concepts in a relatively short time period. The
gamejam format shapes the design process by offering
both accelerated and constrained design [6] [8] with
different rewards for different participants some
focused on outcomes, others on creativity, some on
having learning opportunities, others on networking
and finding potential research collaborators. To
facilitate this, the workshop outputs will be shared
publicly.
We invite participants from a wide range of
communities, including but not limited to game design,
computer science, engineering, education, HCI and ACI,
acoustic engineering, animal behaviour and
environmental enrichment. This is an opportunity for
those with an interest in animal welfare to share ideas
and explore the potential of using acoustic technology
to enhance enrichment.
We would like prospective participants to contact
workshop organizing committee to express their
interest.

References
1. Heloisa H.A. Barcellos, Gessi Koakoski, Fabiele
Chaulet, Karina S. Kirsten, Luis C. Kreutz, Allan V.
Kalueff and Leonardo J.G. Barcellos. (2018) The
effects of auditory enrichment on zebrafish
behavior and physiology. PeerJ 6:e5162
https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5162.
2. Amy Bowman, Fiona J. Dowell and Neil P. Evans.
2017. The effect of different genres of music on the
stress levels of kennelled dogs. Physiology &
Behavior, Volume 171, 2017, Pages 207-215, ISSN
0031-9384,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.01.024.
3. Fiona French, Sofya Baskin, Billy Wallace, Adrian
David Cheok, Anna Zamanzky, and Eleonora
Nannoni. 2017. FarmJam 2017: Designing
Enrichment for Farm Animals. In Proceedings of the
Fourth International Conference on Animal-
Computer Interaction (ACI2017). ACM, New York,
NY, USA, Article 21, 6 pages. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1145/3152130.3152154.
4. Fiona French, Mark Kingston-Jones, David T.
Schaller, Sarah E. Webber, Heli Väätäjä and mark
Campbell. 2016, November. Don't cut to the chase:
hunting experiences for zoo animals and visitors.
In Proceedings of the Third International
Conference on Animal-Computer Interaction (p.
19). ACM.
5. Reinhard Gupfinger and Martin Kaltenbrunner.
2017. Sonic Experiments with Grey Parrots: A
Report on Testing the Auditory Skills and Musical
Preferences of Grey Parrots in Captivity.
In Proceedings of the Fourth International
Conference on Animal-Computer
Interaction (ACI2017). ACM, New York, NY, USA,
Article 3, 6 pages. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1145/3152130.3152137
6. Annakaisa Kultima (2015). Defining Game
Jam. FDG.
7. Clara Mancini and Jussi Lehtonen. 2018. The Emerging
Nature of Participation in Multispecies Interaction
Design. In
Proceedings of the 2018 Designing
Interactive Systems Conference
(DIS '18). ACM, New
York, NY, USA, 907-918. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1145/3196709.3196785
8. Jeanette Falk Olesen. 2017. Design Processes in
Game Jams: Studies of Rapid Design Processes.
In Extended Abstracts Publication of the Annual
Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in
Play (CHI PLAY '17 Extended Abstracts). ACM, New
York, NY, USA, 723-726. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1145/3130859.3133226.
9. Patricia Pons, Marcus Carter and Javier Jaen. 2016.
Sound to your Objects: A Novel Design Approach to
Evaluate Orangutans’ Interest in Sound-based
Stimuli. In
Proceedings of the Third International
Conference on Animal-Computer Interaction
(ACI '16).
ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 7, 5 pages. DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1145/2995257.2995383
10. Marina B. Queiroz and Robert J. Young. 2018. The
Different Physical and Behavioural Characteristics
of Zoo Mammals That Influence Their Response to
Visitors. Animals, 8(8), 139.
doi:10.3390/ani8080139
11. Sarah E. Ritvo, Robert S. Allison, 2017. Designing
for the exceptional user: Nonhuman animal-
computer interaction (ACI), Computers in Human
Behavior, Volume 70, 2017, Pages 222-233, ISSN
0747-5632,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.062.
12. Lindsey Robbins and Susan W. Margulis. 2014. The
effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas. Zoo
Biology, 33: 197-203. doi:10.1002/zoo.21127.
13. Graeme Shannon, Megan F. McKenna, Lisa M.
Angeloni, Kevin R. Crooks, Kurt M. Fristrup, Emma
Brown, Katy A. Warner, Misty D. Nelson, Cecilia
White, Jessica Briggs, Scott McFarland and George
Wittemyer. 2016. A synthesis of two decades of

Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
17 Mar 2019
TL;DR: The ZooJam is a type of workshop whose aim is to extend the reach of UX design beyond human experience in order to become inclusive of other species and their interactions with technology.
Abstract: This is a report of three ZooJams that have taken place at the annual Animal-Computer Interaction conference. The ZooJam is a type of workshop whose aim is to extend the reach of UX design beyond human experience in order to become inclusive of other species and their interactions with technology. As organisers, our attempts have knitted together colleagues from a range of disciplines, all focused on developing practical solutions to different environmental enrichment challenges.We describe the format of the event, explaining the rationale for this approach, showcase some of the crafted design outcomes and reflect on our experiences.

6 citations


Cites background from "SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for ..."

  • ...In 2018, the SoundJam addressed opportunities for auditory enrichment for animals in a range of captive contexts [9] (chimpanzees, parrots, servals and elephants)....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
12 Nov 2019
TL;DR: This investigation should lead to a better understanding of how grey parrots interact with technological mediators, respond to sound devices, and create "parrot music," with potential benefits for their wellbeing while living in captivity.
Abstract: This paper describes our research and the methodology used to design musical instruments and interfaces aimed at providing auditory enrichment for grey parrots living in captivity. Based on the cognitive, physiological, and acoustic abilities of grey parrots, and their intrinsic interest in acoustic and physical interactions, we have developed and tested various interactive instrument prototypes from an animal-centered design perspective. In a previous study, we analyzed the physical and musical skills of a group of grey parrots, and here we present our design results for auditory enrichment in the context of Animal Computer Interaction (ACI) and artistic research. Our investigation should lead to a better understanding of how grey parrots interact with technological mediators, respond to sound devices, and create "parrot music," with potential benefits for their wellbeing while living in captivity.

3 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic and standardised review of the scientific literature published from 1990 to 2013 on the effects of anthropogenic noise on wildlife, including both terrestrial and aquatic studies shows that terrestrial wildlife responses begin at noise levels of approximately 40’dBA, and 20% of papers documented impacts below 50 dBA.
Abstract: Global increases in environmental noise levels – arising from expansion of human populations, transportation networks, and resource extraction – have catalysed a recent surge of research into the effects of noise on wildlife. Synthesising a coherent understanding of the biological consequences of noise from this literature is challenging. Taxonomic groups vary in auditory capabilities. A wide range of noise sources and exposure levels occur, and many kinds of biological responses have been observed, ranging from individual behaviours to changes in ecological communities. Also, noise is one of several environmental effects generated by human activities, so researchers must contend with potentially confounding explanations for biological responses. Nonetheless, it is clear that noise presents diverse threats to species and ecosystems and salient patterns are emerging to help inform future natural resource-management decisions. We conducted a systematic and standardised review of the scientific literature published from 1990 to 2013 on the effects of anthropogenic noise on wildlife, including both terrestrial and aquatic studies. Research to date has concentrated predominantly on European and North American species that rely on vocal communication, with approximately two-thirds of the data set focussing on songbirds and marine mammals. The majority of studies documented effects from noise, including altered vocal behaviour to mitigate masking, reduced abundance in noisy habitats, changes in vigilance and foraging behaviour, and impacts on individual fitness and the structure of ecological communities. This literature survey shows that terrestrial wildlife responses begin at noise levels of approximately 40 dBA, and 20% of papers documented impacts below 50 dBA. Our analysis highlights the utility of existing scientific information concerning the effects of anthropogenic noise on wildlife for predicting potential outcomes of noise exposure and implementing meaningful mitigation measures. Future research directions that would support more comprehensive predictions regarding the magnitude and severity of noise impacts include: broadening taxonomic and geographical scope, exploring interacting stressors, conducting larger-scale studies, testing mitigation approaches, standardising reporting of acoustic metrics, and assessing the biological response to noise-source removal or mitigation. The broad volume of existing information concerning the effects of anthropogenic noise on wildlife offers a valuable resource to assist scientists, industry, and natural-resource managers in predicting potential outcomes of noise exposure.

392 citations


"SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Current research in this area includes passive acoustic monitoring where soundscapes are captured and analysed to infer environmental parameters (Figs 3 & 4) [13], as well as animal behavioural studies [10]....

    [...]


Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: An analysis of game jam descriptions and definitions in academic papers from 2006 to 2014 is presented and an advanced definition of game jams is proposed as a basis for future academic discussions and collaborations.
Abstract: In this paper, an analysis of game jam descriptions and definitions in academic papers is presented. A total of 20 papers from various publication venues from 2006 to 2014 are analyzed in terms of their conceptualizations of a “game jam”. The background of the papers and their contribution to game jam research are also critically examined. A further explication, “an advanced definition”, is proposed as a basis for future academic discussions and collaborations. The advanced definition sums up game jams as: accelerated, constrained and opportunistic game creation events with public exposure.

54 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: This study explored the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of four zoo-housed, female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). All animals were exposed, in an ABA design, to two conditions of auditory stimulation: a 'control' (no auditory stimulation), and an 'experimental' condition, during which the animals were presented with a commercially-available CD of classical music. Each condition lasted for five days, with an interim period of two days between each condition (Study 1). The elephants' behaviour was recorded every minute for four hours a day for the full five days of each condition using instantaneous scan-sampling. The procedure was repeated four months later (Study 2), for a shorter period of time (one day per condition, again using an ABA design) to assess whether the results are generalisable. Analysis of both studies revealed that the elephants spent significantly less of their time stereotyping during the experimental conditions than the control. None of the other behaviours recorded were influenced significantly by auditory stimulation. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that auditory stimulation, in the form of classical music, may be a useful method of reducing stereotypic behaviour in zoo-housed Asian elephants, although more long-term work with a larger number of animals is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

47 citations


"SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...On the other hand, Vivaldi (classical) had an observable calming effect on zebrafish [6], “classical music” seemed to reduce stereotypic behaviour in zoo-housed elephants [16], while soft rock and reggae has been documented as reducing stress in kennel-housed dogs [2]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered.
Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered.

25 citations


"SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Captive gorillas have shown preference for natural sounds over either silence or music (rock or classical) [12], while captive chimpanzees preferred silence to music [15], as did captive moloch gibbons [14]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided.
Abstract: Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n = 38) to medium-term (5 days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment. Dogs were found to spend significantly more time lying and significantly less time standing when music was played, regardless of genre. There was no observable effect of music on barking, however, dogs were significantly (z = 2.2, P < 0.05) more likely to bark following cessation of auditory enrichment. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was significantly higher, indicative of decreased stress, when dogs were played Soft Rock and Reggae, with a lesser effect observed when Motown, Pop and Classical genres were played. Relative to the silent period prior to auditory enrichment, urinary cortisol:creatanine (UCCR) values were significantly higher during Soft Rock (t = 2.781, P < 0.01) and the second silent control period following auditory enrichment (t = 2.46, P < 0.05). Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided.

25 citations


"SoundJam 2018: acoustic design for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...zebrafish [6], “classical music” seemed to reduce stereotypic behaviour in zoo-housed elephants [16], while soft rock and reggae has been documented as reducing stress in kennel-housed dogs [2]....

    [...]


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This workshop is designed to offer participants an opportunity to explore different kinds of auditory enrichment for a range of animals in different environments.