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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVRES.2021.110963

Source and risk assessment of heavy metals and microplastics in bivalves and coastal sediments of the Northern Persian Gulf, Hormogzan Province.

04 Mar 2021-Environmental Research (Academic Press)-Vol. 196, pp 110963-110963
Abstract: The objectives of the current study are to investigate the concentration, biological risks, chemical speciation, and mobility of of heavy metals and also the determination of their distribution, physicochemical characteristics, and abundance of microplastics in coastal sediments and edible bivalves in the Persian Gulf, the coastal area of Hormozgan Province. Sampling points were selected considering the location of industrial, urban and Hara forest protected areas. In November 2017, a total of 18 sediment samples from coastal sediments (top 0-10 cm) and the most consumed bivalve species in the region were collected from two stations, Lengeh and Bandar Abbas Ports. The average concentration of heavy metals (except for Ni and Cd) in the sediments were lower than their average shale and the upper continental crust. Enrichment factors revealed significant enrichment of Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and As. The fractionation of heavy metals using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction scheme indicated the high bioavailability of Zn, As, Mn, and Co. In general, the highest concentration of Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, and Sb was detected in areas with frequent human activities including Shahid Rajaee Port, Shahid Bahonar Port, and Tavanir station. Shahid Rajaee and Shahid Bahonar Ports are the most important ports on the coast of Hormozgan province. The Risk Assessment Code calculated for the study elements indicates that As, Co, Zn, and Cu pose a moderate environmental risk a threat to the aquatic biota. Health risks of most heavy metals arising from bivalves consumption were safe, except for As which is associated with the high target cancer risk values. With reference to the type of microplastics found, they were mainly fibeours with lengths ranging between 100 and 250 μm in sediments and bivalves. Most of the microfibers found in the sediments were made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP), and the fibers found in the bivalves were made of PP. [Abstract copyright: Crown Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]

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Topics: Microplastics (54%)

5 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COTOX.2021.08.004
Sajjad Abbasi1, Sajjad Abbasi2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Plastics have overwhelmingly been employed in every sector of human life, ranging from the cosmetics and food industry to transportation and electronics. It resulted in emerging plastic pollution worldwide, which poses serious threats to the natural ecosystem and human health. This mini-review highlights human exposure to micro(nano)plastics in the environment and evaluates bioplastics as a health/environment safer option.

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Topics: Bioplastic (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.150984
Abstract: This study examines for the first time the characteristics and human exposure of microplastics (MPs) in settled indoor dust in schools. An average of 195 MPs·g−1 of dust were detected in settled indoor composite dust samples from 28 schools in Shiraz. White-transparent microfibres with lengths 500–1000 μm were the most abundant type of MP found among the samples examined. Polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene MPs were dominant across all types of MP found including microfibres. MPs had generally smooth morphology with sharp or regular edges which could have been released to the environment as primary MPs. Among all sampling sites, higher concentrations of MPs were found in the south and centre of the city. These were areas affected by high population density, high traffic load and high presence of industrial units and workshops. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a positive strong correlation between sampling sites and MP physical characteristics. The PCA plots revealed that MP sheets and fragments were prevalent in sites in the North of Shiraz, whereas microfibres were mainly associated with sites in the South. The levels of MPs in the South of Shiraz were greater than in the rest of the country and the wind direction and topography were found to be important factors affecting the MP distribution observed. Compared to other population groups, elementary school students had relatively high exposure risk to MPs. This study reveals that microfibres are widespread in Shiraz’ schools and pose a high exposure risk to MPs for young students.

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Topics: Population (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18147240
Guangjie Zhao1, Xianqing Li1, Jiewang Zhu2, Xueyan Zhao  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The accumulation of tailings from gold mining and smelting may result in PTE pollution. We investigated PTE contamination from a large amalgamated gold mine tailings pond in Pinggu County, Beijing. In November 2017, 30 soil samples were collected around the tailings pond. The concentrations and pollution degree of PTEs in the samples and the sources of Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg were analyzed. The average concentration of these elements in soil samples near the tailings pond (16.24, 28.29, 0.99, 171.04, 263.25, 99.73, 0.72 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than their corresponding standard values and background values of the study area. The geoaccumulation index showed that the pollution degree of As, Pb and Hg was moderate, while Sb and Cu present non-pollution to moderate pollution. The average EF values of the elements were Sb (38.31), As (4.23), Cd (0.71), Cu (3.68), Pb (21.24), Zn (0.82) and Hg (5.29), respectively. The environmental risk assessment developed throughout the PERI method indicated that Sb, As, Hg and Pb were the main pollutants in the study area. The three quantitative risk indicators (RI, Igeo and EF) were positively correlated, and all of them indicated that PTEs had significant pollution to the local area. Thus, Sb, As, Pb, Cu, and Hg pollution should be highly concerning. Multivariate statistical analysis shows that the pollution of PTEs was mainly caused by the accumulation of tailings ponds after gold mining and smelting. The research result is of great significance for the prevention and control of soil pollution of PTEs near the tailings pond.

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Topics: Tailings (60%), Pollution (53%), Soil contamination (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.150559
Abstract: Urban runoff seems an obvious pathway for the transfer of microplastics (MPs) and phthalate acid esters (PAEs) from land-based sources to the marine environment; an issue that still lacks attention. This study presents the first results on MP and PAE levels in the urban runoff into the northern part of the Persian Gulf during the dry season. Average concentrations of MPs and PAEs in the urban runoff of eight selected sampling sites (N = 72) along the Bushehr coast were 1.86 items/L and 53.57 μg/L, respectively. MPs with a size range of 500-1000 μm had the highest abundance, and the mean levels of PAEs in MPs were 99.77 μg/g. The results of this study show that urban runoff is a main source of MP and PAE contaminants that are discharged into the Persian Gulf. Therefore, to decrease these pollutants from entering the aquatic environment, decision-makers in the area should consider this problem and stop the direct discharging of urban runoff into water bodies.

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Topics: Urban runoff (60%), Microplastics (52%)

90 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
01 Jan 1980-Water Research
Abstract: The aim of this work has been to penetrate one of many possible avenues towards a potential ecological risk index to be used as a diagnostic tool for water pollution control purposes, i.e. to sort out which lakes/basins and substances should be given special attention. The work is based on the thesis that a sedimentological risk index for toxic substances in limnic systems should at least,account for the following four requirements.

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4,545 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1130/0016-7606(1961)72[175:DOTEIS]2.0.CO;2
Karl K. Turekian1, K. H. Wedepohl2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper presents a table of abundances of the elements in the various major units of the Earth's lithic crust with a documentation of the sources and a discussion of the choice of units and data.

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Topics: Crust (52%)

4,140 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1047322X.1990.10389587
Richard W. Hornung1, Laurence D. Reed1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In the attempt to estimate the average concentration of a particular contaminant during some period of time, a certain proportion of the collected samples is often reported to be below the limit of detection. The statistical terminology for these results is known as censored data, i.e., nonzero values which cannot be measured but are known to be below some threshold. Samples taken over time are assumed to follow a lognormal distribution. Given this assumption, several techniques are presented for estimation of the average concentration from data containing nondetectable values. The techniques proposed include three methods of estimation with a left-censored lognormal distribution: a maximum likelihood statistical method and two methods involving the limit of detection. Each method is evaluated using computer simulation with respect to the bias associated with estimation of the mean and standard deviation. The maximum likelihood method was shown to produce unbiased estimates of both the mean and s...

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2,269 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES400663F
Matthew Cole1, P. Lindeque1, Elaine S. Fileman1, Claudia Halsband2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Small plastic detritus, termed “microplastics”, are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7–30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets lade...

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Topics: Microplastics (67%), Zooplankton (55%), Detritus (51%)

1,278 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2005.02.026
Abstract: Though there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of urban dusts in developed countries, little attention has been paid to this kind of study in developing countries, including China. Therefore, a series of investigations were performed to provide heavy metal signatures of urban dusts and to evaluate potential sources in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Sixty-five samples of urban dusts were collected in Xi'an. Then Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and As, Hg and Sb concentrations by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that, in comparison with Chinese soil, urban dusts in Xi'an have elevated metal concentrations as a whole, except those of arsenic and manganese. These concentration levels are comparable to those in other studies. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed and three main sources with corresponding cluster elements were identified: (1) Ag and Hg have commercial and domestic sources; (2) Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn are mainly derived from industrial sources, combined with traffic sources as well for Pb and Zn; (3) As and Mn come mainly from soil sources, and As also has an industrial source. Based on PCA and CA analyses, manganese was selected as the reference element, and heavy metal enrichment factors (Efs) were calculated, which in turn further confirms the source identification. Also, Efs give an insight of human influence degree of urban dusts.

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1,099 Citations

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