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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10661-021-08942-1

Spatial distribution and risk assessment of agricultural soil pollution by hazardous elements in a transboundary river basin

04 Mar 2021-Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 193, Iss: 4, pp 1-17
Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the sources of pollution and the potential human and ecological risks of hazardous elements (HEs) in 40 hotspot sites of the agricultural soil around the Arvand River, Iran. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg were measured to be 7.2, 0.8, 14.0, 67.9, 69.5, 63.0, 296, and 0.66 (mg kg−1), respectively. With the exception of Ni, the mean concentrations of all the elements were found to be higher than those in the background. The spatial distribution of HEs in the study area indicated an increasing trend of contamination from the north to the south. Pb, Zn, and Hg were the most enriched elements, resulting in a high pollution load. Moreover, the agricultural soil of the study area was threatened by a very high ecological risk due to the contribution of Hg, Cd, and Pb. Multivariate statistical analyses determined that the pollution sources are specified by the oil refinery emissions and effluents, irrigation with polluted water, fertilizers, dust storms, and airport emissions. The carcinogenic risk of HEs in both adults and children revealed an acceptable level; however, children faced a great chance of non-carcinogenic risk. The results provide a scientific basis for monitoring HEs and managing health risks via effective methods in the agricultural areas of the Arvand River basin.

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Topics: Pollution (54%), Soil contamination (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.131446
01 Dec 2021-Chemosphere
Abstract: To determine the status and sources of contamination and phytoremediation capability of Typha latifolia L. in the Bahmanshir River of Iran, the concentration of eight potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and plant tissues from ten sampling sites were measured. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the sediment exceeded those of local background. PCA-MLR receptor analysis suggested that the sediment contamination was due to municipal wastewater/vehicular pollution and weathering/industrial/agricultural activities, with contributions of 66% and 34%, respectively. Average enrichment factor (EF) and modified hazard quotient (mHQ) for Pb and Cu were categorized as moderate. Modified pollution index (MPI) and modified ecological risk index (MRI) values suggested moderate to heavy pollution and low ecological risk, respectively. The values of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), ecological contamination index (ECI), contamination severity index (CSI), and toxic risk index (TRI) were all similar, reflecting low to moderate contamination and toxicity. Typha latifolia L. showed good phytostabilization capability for Cd, Cu, and Pb, and phytoextraction capacity for Zn. Using the metal accumulation index (MAI) and the comprehensive bioconcentration index (CBCI), Typha latifolia L. was shown to have acceptable performance in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and thus, can be considered a good candidate for bioaccumulation of these elements in the study area. Overall, this study suggests that phytoremediation using Typha latifolia L. could be a practical method for uptake and remove of potentially toxic elements from aquatic environments.

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Topics: Phytoremediation (52%), Bioaccumulation (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/W13162256
18 Aug 2021-Water
Abstract: In this study, the quality of sediment and surface water in two natural wetlands, Paca and Tragadero, in the central region of Peru was evaluated using pollution indices, including the geoaccumulation index, pollutant load index, modified pollution degree, potential ecological risk index, and site rank index, for four heavy metals. Principal component analysis was used to identify potential metal contaminant sources. The determination of Fe, Zn, Pb, and As was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentrations of metals in the sediments of both lagoons decreased in the order Fe > Zn > Pb > As. The analysis of the contamination indices determined that As and Pb are the elements that contribute the most to environmental degradation in both wetlands. There is a strong correlation between the values of potential ecological risk and the modified degree of contamination, revealing that the Paca wetland has a moderate degree of contamination and potential ecological risk, while Tragadero presents a high degree of contamination and considerable potential ecological risk. The application of the site rank index showed that more than 50% of the sampling sites have between high and severe contamination. The principal component analysis presented 79.2% of the total variance. Finally, the results of this study are essential in order to carry out preventive actions for environmental protection in these lake ecosystems of great importance for many activities, such as bird watching.

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Topics: Contamination (53%), Pollution (53%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.06.054
Abstract: The contamination of water, air and soil with potentially toxic elements (PTE) compromises the supply of contaminant free food. Vegetables grown in contaminated soils can absorb and accumulate PTE at concentrations that are toxic to human health. In this context, the human risk associated with the intake of artichokes grown in soils irrigated with PTE contaminated water was assessed. 120 samples of surface soil and artichoke heads were collected and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn and As were determined. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Fe and Zn in soil did not exceed the standards of the Ministry of Environment of Peru, but they did exceed those of Pb (125.45 mg kg−1) and As (28.70 mg kg−1). The decreasing order of mean PTE concentration in artichoke heads was Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > As, exceeding the permissible levels of FAO/WHO CODEX Alimentarius. However, the concentrations of As comply with the maximum limits of inorganic contaminants in vegetables (0.3 mg kg−1) established in the MERCOSUR regulations. The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of Pb and As indicated that the ingestion of artichoke heads does not represent a health risk.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10653-021-01157-W
Vinod Kumar1, Maja Radziemska2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The pollution of toxic elements (TEs) in the ecosystem exhibits detrimental effects on the human health. In this paper, we debated remediation approaches for TEs polluted soils via immobilization methods employing numerous amendments with reverence to type of soil and metals, and amendment, immobilization competence, fundamental processes and field applicability. We argued the influence of pH, soil organic matter, textural properties, microbes, speciation and biochar on the bioavailability of TEs. All these properties of soil, microbes and biochar are imperative for effective and safe application of these methods in remediation of TEs contamination in the ecosystem. Further, the application of physiochemical properties, microbes and biochar as amendments has significant synergistic impacts not only on absorption of elements but also on diminution of toxic elements.

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Topics: Biochar (60%), Soil organic matter (52%), Environmental remediation (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COCHE.2021.100751
Abstract: Modeling oil biodegradation and remediation has become an increasingly important means to predict oil persistence and explore potential in-situ bioremediation strategies for oil-contaminated beaches. Beaches involve complex mixing dynamics between seawater and groundwater. Thus, numerically predicting oil biodegradation within beach systems faces major challenges in merging highly dynamic biogeochemical conditions into microbial degradation models. In this paper, we reviewed recent advances in modeling oil biodegradation from aspects of oil phases, reaction kinetics, microbial activities, environmental conditions, and beach hydrodynamics. We identified key controlling factors of oil biodegradation, highlighted the importance of fate and transport processes on nearshore oil biodegradation, and suggested some advances needed to achieve for developing a robust numerical model to predict oil biodegradation and bioremediation within beaches.

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Topics: Microbial biodegradation (52%)

References
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102 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
01 Jan 1980-Water Research
Abstract: The aim of this work has been to penetrate one of many possible avenues towards a potential ecological risk index to be used as a diagnostic tool for water pollution control purposes, i.e. to sort out which lakes/basins and substances should be given special attention. The work is based on the thesis that a sedimentological risk index for toxic substances in limnic systems should at least,account for the following four requirements.

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4,545 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
01 Jan 1969-GeoJournal

2,631 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF02414780
01 Mar 1980-
Abstract: Most estuaries receive a high heavy-metal input from industries. This is reflected in the relatively high levels found in numerous estuarine organisms and in sediments. Many indicators have been suggested for facilitating the detection of heavy-metal pollution, but the problems in using these indicators to evaluate the metal loading of estuaries are considerable. Variations in species composition, and conditions at different sites, differences in season of sampling, and age of organism, as well as different metal levels in different parts of the organism, make the interpretation of results difficult. The levels reported here, similar to those in other unpolluted estuaries, have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a “Biological Quality Index” and “Pollution Load Index,” and a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data for an English and a European estuary.

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Topics: Pollution (51%)

1,725 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S002540050473
Ross A. Sutherland1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Of the 117 stream and lake systems sampled nationwide, fish from Manoa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii, have consistently shown the highest Pb concentrations. Therefore a detailed study was conducted to examine total metal contents in bed sediments from a 5.8-km stretch of Manoa Stream. A total of 123 samples (<63 μm) were examined for 18 elements and 14 samples for 21 elements. Selected samples were also examined using different leach solutions to examine metal phase associations. All trace metal data, computations of enrichment ratios and the modified index of geoaccumulation point to mineralogical control for Cr and Ni; minor anthropogenic contamination for Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn; and a very strong contamination signal for Pb. Maximum Pb contents (up to 1080 mg kg−1) were associated with anthropogenic material dumping in minor tributaries, storm sewer sediments and sediments in the “lower” section of the basin. Proportionally Pb had the highest non-residual component of elements examined; dominantly in the reducible phase associated with Mn and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides. The contamination signal was typically lowest in the “undisturbed” headwater reach of the basin (above 5.1 km) with significant increases throughout the “residential” and “commercial-institutional” zones of the mid-basin. The spatial pattern of bed sediment contamination and evidence from storm sewer-outlet sediments strongly indicates that Pb, and to a lesser degree some other metals, is still being transported to the stream and the primary agent is soil erosion and transport of metals sorbed to sediments. The primary source of sediment-associated metals is considered to be the automobile, though other minor sources can not be ruled out.

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Topics: Trace metal (56%), Sediment (53%), Tributary (51%) ... show more

1,220 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2005.03.026
L. Ferreira-Baptista1, E. De MiguelInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A total of 92 samples of street dust were collected in Luanda, Angola, were sieved below 100 μm, and analysed by ICP-MS for 35 elements after an aqua-regia digestion. The concentration and spatial heterogeneity of trace elements in the street dust of Luanda are generally lower than in most industrialized cities in the Northern hemisphere. These observations reveal a predominantly “natural” origin for the street dust in Luanda, which is also manifested in that some geochemical processes that occur in natural soils are preserved in street dust: the separation of uranium from thorium, and the retention of the former by carbonate materials, or the high correlation between arsenic and vanadium due to their common mode of adsorption on solid particles in the form of oxyanions. The only distinct anthropogenic fingerprint in the composition of Luanda's street dust is the association Pb–Cd–Sb–Cu (and to a lesser extent, Ba–Cr–Zn). The use of risk assessment strategies has proved helpful in identifying the routes of exposure to street dust and the trace elements therein of most concern in terms of potential adverse health effects. In Luanda the highest levels of risk seem to be associated (a) with the presence of As and Pb in the street dust and (b) with the route of ingestion of dust particles, for all the elements included in the study except Hg, for which inhalation of vapours presents a slightly higher risk than ingestion. However, given the large uncertainties associated with the estimates of toxicity values and exposure factors, and the absence of site-specific biometric factors, these results should be regarded as preliminary and further research should be undertaken before any definite conclusions regarding potential health effects are drawn.

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726 Citations