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Book ChapterDOI

Spatiotemporal approach for tracking using rough entropy and frame subtraction

27 Jun 2011-pp 193-199
TL;DR: An approach for video image segmentation where spatial segmentation is based on rough sets and granular computing and temporal segmentation was done by consecutive frame subtraction is presented.
Abstract: We present here an approach for video image segmentation where spatial segmentation is based on rough sets and granular computing and temporal segmentation is done by consecutive frame subtraction. Then the intersection of the temporal segmentation and spatial segmentation for the same frame is analyzed in RGB feature space. The estimated statistics of the intersecting regions is used for the object reconstruction and tracking.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2013
TL;DR: A new spatio-temporal segmentation approach for moving object(s) detection and tracking from a video sequence is described, which is more robust to noise and gradual illumination change, and superior to several related methods.
Abstract: A new spatio-temporal segmentation approach for moving object(s) detection and tracking from a video sequence is described. Spatial segmentation is carried out using rough entropy maximization, where we use the quad-tree decomposition, resulting in unequal image granulation which is closer to natural granulation. A three point estimation based on Beta Distribution is formulated for background estimation during temporal segmentation. Reconstruction and tracking of the object in the target frame is performed after combining the two segmentation outputs using its color and shift information. The algorithm is more robust to noise and gradual illumination change, because their presence is less likely to affect both its spatial and temporal segments inside the search window. The proposed methods for spatial and temporal segmentation are seen to be superior to several related methods. The accuracy of reconstruction has been significantly high.

21 citations

References
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Book
31 Oct 1991
TL;DR: Theoretical Foundations.
Abstract: I. Theoretical Foundations.- 1. Knowledge.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Knowledge and Classification.- 1.3. Knowledge Base.- 1.4. Equivalence, Generalization and Specialization of Knowledge.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 2. Imprecise Categories, Approximations and Rough Sets.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Rough Sets.- 2.3. Approximations of Set.- 2.4. Properties of Approximations.- 2.5. Approximations and Membership Relation.- 2.6. Numerical Characterization of Imprecision.- 2.7. Topological Characterization of Imprecision.- 2.8. Approximation of Classifications.- 2.9. Rough Equality of Sets.- 2.10. Rough Inclusion of Sets.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 3. Reduction of Knowledge.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Reduct and Core of Knowledge.- 3.3. Relative Reduct and Relative Core of Knowledge.- 3.4. Reduction of Categories.- 3.5. Relative Reduct and Core of Categories.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 4. Dependencies in Knowledge Base.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Dependency of Knowledge.- 4.3. Partial Dependency of Knowledge.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 5. Knowledge Representation.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Examples.- 5.3. Formal Definition.- 5.4. Significance of Attributes.- 5.5. Discernibility Matrix.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 6. Decision Tables.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Formal Definition and Some Properties.- 6.3. Simplification of Decision Tables.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 7. Reasoning about Knowledge.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Language of Decision Logic.- 7.3. Semantics of Decision Logic Language.- 7.4. Deduction in Decision Logic.- 7.5. Normal Forms.- 7.6. Decision Rules and Decision Algorithms.- 7.7. Truth and Indiscernibility.- 7.8. Dependency of Attributes.- 7.9. Reduction of Consistent Algorithms.- 7.10. Reduction of Inconsistent Algorithms.- 7.11. Reduction of Decision Rules.- 7.12. Minimization of Decision Algorithms.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- II. Applications.- 8. Decision Making.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Optician's Decisions Table.- 8.3. Simplification of Decision Table.- 8.4. Decision Algorithm.- 8.5. The Case of Incomplete Information.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 9. Data Analysis.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.2. Decision Table as Protocol of Observations.- 9.3. Derivation of Control Algorithms from Observation.- 9.4. Another Approach.- 9.5. The Case of Inconsistent Data.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 10. Dissimilarity Analysis.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. The Middle East Situation.- 10.3. Beauty Contest.- 10.4. Pattern Recognition.- 10.5. Buying a Car.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 11. Switching Circuits.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Minimization of Partially Defined Switching Functions.- 11.3. Multiple-Output Switching Functions.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.- 12. Machine Learning.- 12.1. Introduction.- 12.2. Learning From Examples.- 12.3. The Case of an Imperfect Teacher.- 12.4. Inductive Learning.- Summary.- Exercises.- References.

7,826 citations


"Spatiotemporal approach for trackin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Theory of Rough sets [ 8 ] has recently become a popular mathematical framework for granular computing....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this article is to review the state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends to discuss the important issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate image features, selection of motion models, and detection of objects.
Abstract: The goal of this article is to review the state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of both the object and the scene, nonrigid object structures, object-to-object and object-to-scene occlusions, and camera motion. Tracking is usually performed in the context of higher-level applications that require the location and/or shape of the object in every frame. Typically, assumptions are made to constrain the tracking problem in the context of a particular application. In this survey, we categorize the tracking methods on the basis of the object and motion representations used, provide detailed descriptions of representative methods in each category, and examine their pros and cons. Moreover, we discuss the important issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate image features, selection of motion models, and detection of objects.

5,318 citations


"Spatiotemporal approach for trackin..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Over the years researchers have been trying to improve the accuracy and speed in detection and tracking [5,11, 13 ]....

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  • ...(iii) After having spatial segmented image frame, we have used a frame subtraction method to collect the temporal information of the frame [ 13 ]....

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  • ...Algorithm for Tracking: The object detection and tracking starts with selection of the tracker [5,11, 13 ]....

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Book
01 Aug 1995
TL;DR: Digital Video Processing, Second Edition, reflects important advances in image processing, computer vision, and video compression, including new applications such as digital cinema, ultra-high-resolution video, and 3D video.
Abstract: Over the years, thousands of engineering students and professionals relied on Digital Video Processing as the definitive, in-depth guide to digital image and video processing technology. Now, Dr. A. Murat Tekalp has completely revamped the first edition to reflect todays technologies, techniques, algorithms, and trends. Digital Video Processing, Second Edition, reflects important advances in image processing, computer vision, and video compression, including new applications such as digital cinema, ultra-high-resolution video, and 3D video. This edition offers rigorous, comprehensive, balanced, and quantitative coverage of image filtering, motion estimation, tracking, segmentation, video filtering, and compression. Now organized and presented as a true tutorial, it contains updated problem sets and new MATLAB projects in every chapter. Coverage includes Multi-dimensional signals/systems: transforms, sampling, and lattice conversion Digital images and video: human vision, analog/digital video, and video quality Image filtering: gradient estimation, edge detection, scaling, multi-resolution representations, enhancement, de-noising, and restoration Motion estimation: image formation; motion models; differential, matching, optimization, and transform-domain methods; and 3D motion and shape estimation Video segmentation: color and motion segmentation, change detection, shot boundary detection, video matting, video tracking, and performance evaluation Multi-frame filtering: motion-compensated filtering, multi-frame standards conversion, multi-frame noise filtering, restoration, and super-resolution Image compression: lossless compression, JPEG, wavelets, and JPEG2000 Video compression: early standards, ITU-T H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HEVC, Scalable Video Compression, and stereo/multi-view approaches

1,350 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991

394 citations

Book
21 Feb 2011
TL;DR: The design methodologies discussed throughout the book provide guidelines for developers in the industry working on vision-based applications, and help researchers and practitioners develop techniques and solutions based on the potential of video tracking applications.
Abstract: Video Tracking provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental aspects of algorithm and application development for the task of estimating, over time, the position of objects of interest seen through cameras. Starting from the general problem definition and a review of existing and emerging video tracking applications, the book discusses popular methods, such as those based on correlation and gradient-descent. Using practical examples, the reader is introduced to the advantages and limitations of deterministic approaches, and is then guided toward more advanced video tracking solutions, such as those based on the Bayes recursive framework and on Random Finite Sets.Key features:Discusses the design choices and implementation issues required to turn the underlying mathematical models into a real-world effective tracking systems. Provides block diagrams and simil-code implementation of the algorithms. Reviews methods to evaluate the performance of video trackers this is identified as a major problem by end-users. The book aims to help researchers and practitioners develop techniques and solutions based on the potential of video tracking applications. The design methodologies discussed throughout the book provide guidelines for developers in the industry working on vision-based applications. The book may also serve as a reference for engineering and computer science graduate students involved in vision, robotics, human-computer interaction, smart environments and virtual reality programmes

224 citations