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Book ChapterDOI

Spectral Graph Theory-Based Spatio-spectral Filters for Motor Imagery Brain–Computer Interface

01 Jan 2021-pp 247-256

TL;DR: A novel approach that utilizes graph theory-based unsupervised feature selection method to determine a reduced set of non-redundant and relevant frequency bands is proposed and shows improvement in classification performance.

AbstractMotor imagery brain–computer interfaces are one of the widely adopted techniques for imparting basic communication capability to motor disabled patients The preciseness of a motor imagery BCI task classification is highly dependent on identifying the subject-specific relevant subset of frequency filters This article proposes a novel approach that utilizes graph theory-based unsupervised feature selection method to determine a reduced set of non-redundant and relevant frequency bands The empirical analysis of the proposed method is conducted on publicly available datasets, and the obtained results show improvement in classification performance Further, the performed Friedman statistical test also establishes that the proposed approach surpasses the baseline techniques in classification accuracy

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances.
Abstract: For many years people have speculated that electroencephalographic activity or other electrophysiological measures of brain function might provide a new non-muscular channel for sending messages and commands to the external world - a brain-computer interface (BCI). Over the past 15 years, productive BCI research programs have arisen. Encouraged by new understanding of brain function, by the advent of powerful low-cost computer equipment, and by growing recognition of the needs and potentials of people with disabilities, these programs concentrate on developing new augmentative communication and control technology for those with severe neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke, and spinal cord injury. The immediate goal is to provide these users, who may be completely paralyzed, or 'locked in', with basic communication capabilities so that they can express their wishes to caregivers or even operate word processing programs or neuroprostheses. Present-day BCIs determine the intent of the user from a variety of different electrophysiological signals. These signals include slow cortical potentials, P300 potentials, and mu or beta rhythms recorded from the scalp, and cortical neuronal activity recorded by implanted electrodes. They are translated in real-time into commands that operate a computer display or other device. Successful operation requires that the user encode commands in these signals and that the BCI derive the commands from the signals. Thus, the user and the BCI system need to adapt to each other both initially and continually so as to ensure stable performance. Current BCIs have maximum information transfer rates up to 10-25bits/min. This limited capacity can be valuable for people whose severe disabilities prevent them from using conventional augmentative communication methods. At the same time, many possible applications of BCI technology, such as neuroprosthesis control, may require higher information transfer rates. Future progress will depend on: recognition that BCI research and development is an interdisciplinary problem, involving neurobiology, psychology, engineering, mathematics, and computer science; identification of those signals, whether evoked potentials, spontaneous rhythms, or neuronal firing rates, that users are best able to control independent of activity in conventional motor output pathways; development of training methods for helping users to gain and maintain that control; delineation of the best algorithms for translating these signals into device commands; attention to the identification and elimination of artifacts such as electromyographic and electro-oculographic activity; adoption of precise and objective procedures for evaluating BCI performance; recognition of the need for long-term as well as short-term assessment of BCI performance; identification of appropriate BCI applications and appropriate matching of applications and users; and attention to factors that affect user acceptance of augmentative technology, including ease of use, cosmesis, and provision of those communication and control capacities that are most important to the user. Development of BCI technology will also benefit from greater emphasis on peer-reviewed research publications and avoidance of the hyperbolic and often misleading media attention that tends to generate unrealistic expectations in the public and skepticism in other researchers. With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all these issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances.

6,304 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theoretical background of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm, a popular method in brain-computer interface (BCD research), is elucidated and tricks of the trade for achieving a powerful CSP performance are revealed.
Abstract: Due to the volume conduction multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings give a rather blurred image of brain activity. Therefore spatial filters are extremely useful in single-trial analysis in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. There are powerful methods from machine learning and signal processing that permit the optimization of spatio-temporal filters for each subject in a data dependent fashion beyond the fixed filters based on the sensor geometry, e.g., Laplacians. Here we elucidate the theoretical background of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm, a popular method in brain-computer interface (BCD research. Apart from reviewing several variants of the basic algorithm, we reveal tricks of the trade for achieving a powerful CSP performance, briefly elaborate on theoretical aspects of CSP, and demonstrate the application of CSP-type preprocessing in our studies of the Berlin BCI (BBCI) project.

1,592 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2008
TL;DR: A novel filter bank common spatial pattern (FBCSP) is proposed to perform autonomous selection of key temporal-spatial discriminative EEG characteristics and shows that FBCSP, using a particular combination feature selection and classification algorithm, yields relatively higher cross-validation accuracies compared to prevailing approaches.
Abstract: In motor imagery-based brain computer interfaces (BCI), discriminative patterns can be extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. However, the performance of this spatial filter depends on the operational frequency band of the EEG. Thus, setting a broad frequency range, or manually selecting a subject-specific frequency range, are commonly used with the CSP algorithm. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel filter bank common spatial pattern (FBCSP) to perform autonomous selection of key temporal-spatial discriminative EEG characteristics. After the EEG measurements have been bandpass-filtered into multiple frequency bands, CSP features are extracted from each of these bands. A feature selection algorithm is then used to automatically select discriminative pairs of frequency bands and corresponding CSP features. A classification algorithm is subsequently used to classify the CSP features. A study is conducted to assess the performance of a selection of feature selection and classification algorithms for use with the FBCSP. Extensive experimental results are presented on a publicly available dataset as well as data collected from healthy subjects and unilaterally paralyzed stroke patients. The results show that FBCSP, using a particular combination feature selection and classification algorithm, yields relatively higher cross-validation accuracies compared to prevailing approaches.

759 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that the key to quick efficiency in the BBCI system is its flexibility due to complex but physiologically meaningful features and its adaptivity which respects the enormous inter-subject variability.
Abstract: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems establish a direct communication channel from the brain to an output device. These systems use brain signals recorded from the scalp, the surface of the cortex, or from inside the brain to enable users to control a variety of applications. BCI systems that bypass conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles can provide novel control options for paralyzed patients. One classical approach to establish EEG-based control is to set up a system that is controlled by a specific EEG feature which is known to be susceptible to conditioning and to let the subjects learn the voluntary control of that feature. In contrast, the Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) uses well established motor competencies of its users and a machine learning approach to extract subject-specific patterns from high-dimensional features optimized for detecting the user's intent. Thus the long subject training is replaced by a short calibration measurement (20 min) and machine learning (1 min). We report results from a study in which 10 subjects, who had no or little experience with BCI feedback, controlled computer applications by voluntary imagination of limb movements: these intentions led to modulations of spontaneous brain activity specifically, somatotopically matched sensorimotor 7-30 Hz rhythms were diminished over pericentral cortices. The peak information transfer rate was above 35 bits per minute (bpm) for 3 subjects, above 23 bpm for two, and above 12 bpm for 3 subjects, while one subject could achieve no BCI control. Compared to other BCI systems which need longer subject training to achieve comparable results, we propose that the key to quick efficiency in the BBCI system is its flexibility due to complex but physiologically meaningful features and its adaptivity which respects the enormous inter-subject variability.

755 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Friedman (1937) test for the randomized complete block design is used to test the hypothesis of no treatment effect among k treatments with b blocks. Difficulty in determination of the size of the critical region for this hypothesis is com¬pounded by the facts that (1) the most recent extension of exact tables for the distribution of the test statistic by Odeh (1977) go up only to the case with k6 and b6, and (2) the usual chi-square approximation is grossly inaccurate for most commonly used combinations of (k,b). The purpose of this paper 2 is to compare two new approximations with the usual x2 and F large sample approximations. This work represents an extension to the two-way layout of work done earlier by the authors for the one-way Kruskal-Wallis test statistic.

747 citations