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Open accessPosted Content

SpectralDefense: Detecting Adversarial Attacks on CNNs in the Fourier Domain

Abstract: Despite the success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in many computer vision and image analysis tasks, they remain vulnerable against so-called adversarial attacks: Small, crafted perturbations in the input images can lead to false predictions. A possible defense is to detect adversarial examples. In this work, we show how analysis in the Fourier domain of input images and feature maps can be used to distinguish benign test samples from adversarial images. We propose two novel detection methods: Our first method employs the magnitude spectrum of the input images to detect an adversarial attack. This simple and robust classifier can successfully detect adversarial perturbations of three commonly used attack methods. The second method builds upon the first and additionally extracts the phase of Fourier coefficients of feature-maps at different layers of the network. With this extension, we are able to improve adversarial detection rates compared to state-of-the-art detectors on five different attack methods.

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5 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Peter Lorenz1, Paula Harder1, Dominik Strassel1, Margret Keuper2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Recently, adversarial attacks on image classification networks by the AutoAttack (Croce and Hein, 2020b) framework have drawn a lot of attention. While AutoAttack has shown a very high attack success rate, most defense approaches are focusing on network hardening and robustness enhancements, like adversarial training. This way, the currently best-reported method can withstand about 66% of adversarial examples on CIFAR10. In this paper, we investigate the spatial and frequency domain properties of AutoAttack and propose an alternative defense. Instead of hardening a network, we detect adversarial attacks during inference, rejecting manipulated inputs. Based on a rather simple and fast analysis in the frequency domain, we introduce two different detection algorithms. First, a black box detector that only operates on the input images and achieves a detection accuracy of 100% on the AutoAttack CIFAR10 benchmark and 99.3% on ImageNet, for epsilon = 8/255 in both cases. Second, a whitebox detector using an analysis of CNN feature maps, leading to a detection rate of also 100% and 98.7% on the same benchmarks.

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2 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/3475724.3483610
Abstract: Adversarial example (AE) aims at fooling a Convolution Neural Network by introducing small perturbations in the input image.The proposed work uses the magnitude and phase of the Fourier Spectrum and the entropy of the image to defend against AE. We demonstrate the defense in two ways: by training an adversarial detector and denoising the adversarial effect. Experiments were conducted on the low-resolution CIFAR-10 and high-resolution ImageNet datasets. The adversarial detector has 99% accuracy for FGSM and PGD attacks on the CIFAR-10 dataset. However, the detection accuracy falls to 50% for sophisticated DeepFool and Carlini & Wagner attacks on ImageNet. We overcome the limitation by using autoencoder and show that 70% of AEs are correctly classified after denoising.

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Topics: Autoencoder (52%)

Open accessPosted Content
Chen Liu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Image reconstruction is likely the most predominant auxiliary task for image classification, but we would like to think twice about this convention. In this paper, we investigated "approximating the Fourier Transform of the input image" as a potential alternative, in the hope that it may further boost the performances on the primary task or introduce novel constraints not well covered by image reconstruction. We experimented with five popular classification architectures on the CIFAR-10 dataset, and the empirical results indicated that our proposed auxiliary task generally improves the classification accuracy. More notably, the results showed that in certain cases our proposed auxiliary task may enhance the classifiers' resistance to adversarial attacks generated using the fast gradient sign method.

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Open accessPosted Content
Jie Ren, Die Zhang, Yisen Wang, Lu Chen  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
05 Nov 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: This paper provides a unified view to explain different adversarial attacks and defense methods, \emph{i.e.} the view of multi-order interactions between input variables of DNNs. Based on the multi-order interaction, we discover that adversarial attacks mainly affect high-order interactions to fool the DNN. Furthermore, we find that the robustness of adversarially trained DNNs comes from category-specific low-order interactions. Our findings provide a potential method to unify adversarial perturbations and robustness, which can explain the existing defense methods in a principle way. Besides, our findings also make a revision of previous inaccurate understanding of the shape bias of adversarially learned features.

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Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Image reconstruction is likely the most predominant auxiliary task for image classification. In this paper, we investigate ``estimating the Fourier Transform of the input image" as a potential alternative auxiliary task, in the hope that it may further boost the performances on the primary task or introduce novel constraints not well covered by image reconstruction. We experimented with five popular classification architectures on the CIFAR-10 dataset, and the empirical results indicated that our proposed auxiliary task generally improves the classification accuracy. More notably, the results showed that in certain cases our proposed auxiliary task may enhance the classifiers' resistance to adversarial attacks generated using the fast gradient sign method.

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29 results found


Open accessProceedings Article
Karen Simonyan1, Andrew Zisserman1Institutions (1)
04 Sep 2014-
Abstract: In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small (3x3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

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38,283 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11263-015-0816-Y
Olga Russakovsky1, Jia Deng2, Hao Su1, Jonathan Krause1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.

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25,260 Citations


Open accessDissertation
Alex Krizhevsky1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2009-
Abstract: In this work we describe how to train a multi-layer generative model of natural images. We use a dataset of millions of tiny colour images, described in the next section. This has been attempted by several groups but without success. The models on which we focus are RBMs (Restricted Boltzmann Machines) and DBNs (Deep Belief Networks). These models learn interesting-looking filters, which we show are more useful to a classifier than the raw pixels. We train the classifier on a labeled subset that we have collected and call the CIFAR-10 dataset.

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Topics: Deep belief network (57%), Generative model (52%), Boltzmann machine (51%) ... show more

14,902 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1145/3065386
Abstract: We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.2 million high-resolution images in the ImageNet LSVRC-2010 contest into the 1000 different classes. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 37.5% and 17.0%, respectively, which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art. The neural network, which has 60 million parameters and 650,000 neurons, consists of five convolutional layers, some of which are followed by max-pooling layers, and three fully connected layers with a final 1000-way softmax. To make training faster, we used non-saturating neurons and a very efficient GPU implementation of the convolution operation. To reduce overfitting in the fully connected layers we employed a recently developed regularization method called "dropout" that proved to be very effective. We also entered a variant of this model in the ILSVRC-2012 competition and achieved a winning top-5 test error rate of 15.3%, compared to 26.2% achieved by the second-best entry.

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Topics: Convolutional neural network (63%), Dropout (neural networks) (57%), Overfitting (53%) ... show more

12,532 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1090/S0025-5718-1965-0178586-1
Abstract: An efficient method for the calculation of the interactions of a 2' factorial ex- periment was introduced by Yates and is widely known by his name. The generaliza- tion to 3' was given by Box et al. (1). Good (2) generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which one class of applications is the calculation of Fourier series. In their full generality, Good's methods are applicable to certain problems in which one must multiply an N-vector by an N X N matrix which can be factored into m sparse matrices, where m is proportional to log N. This results inma procedure requiring a number of operations proportional to N log N rather than N2. These methods are applied here to the calculation of complex Fourier series. They are useful in situations where the number of data points is, or can be chosen to be, a highly composite number. The algorithm is here derived and presented in a rather different form. Attention is given to the choice of N. It is also shown how special advantage can be obtained in the use of a binary computer with N = 2' and how the entire calculation can be performed within the array of N data storage locations used for the given Fourier coefficients. Consider the problem of calculating the complex Fourier series N-1 (1) X(j) = EA(k)-Wjk, j = 0 1, * ,N- 1, k=0

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Topics: Discrete Fourier series (63%), Fourier series (59%), Prime-factor FFT algorithm (56%) ... show more

10,975 Citations


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