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# Speech and Language Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition

01 Jan 2000-

TL;DR: This book takes an empirical approach to language processing, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corpora, to demonstrate how the same algorithm can be used for speech recognition and word-sense disambiguation.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This book takes an empirical approach to language processing, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corpora.Methodology boxes are included in each chapter. Each chapter is built around one or more worked examples to demonstrate the main idea of the chapter. Covers the fundamental algorithms of various fields, whether originally proposed for spoken or written language to demonstrate how the same algorithm can be used for speech recognition and word-sense disambiguation. Emphasis on web and other practical applications. Emphasis on scientific evaluation. Useful as a reference for professionals in any of the areas of speech and language processing.

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24 Aug 2012

TL;DR: This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach, and is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.

Abstract: Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic methods, the book stresses a principled model-based approach, often using the language of graphical models to specify models in a concise and intuitive way. Almost all the models described have been implemented in a MATLAB software package--PMTK (probabilistic modeling toolkit)--that is freely available online. The book is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.

7,045 citations

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01 Jan 2002

TL;DR: The functionality of the SRILM toolkit is summarized and its design and implementation is discussed, highlighting ease of rapid prototyping, reusability, and combinability of tools.

Abstract: SRILM is a collection of C++ libraries, executable programs, and helper scripts designed to allow both production of and experimentation with statistical language models for speech recognition and other applications. SRILM is freely available for noncommercial purposes. The toolkit supports creation and evaluation of a variety of language model types based on N-gram statistics, as well as several related tasks, such as statistical tagging and manipulation of N-best lists and word lattices. This paper summarizes the functionality of the toolkit and discusses its design and implementation, highlighting ease of rapid prototyping, reusability, and combinability of tools.

4,783 citations

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TL;DR: This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation.

Abstract: This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.

3,135 citations

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01 Jan 2002

TL;DR: This thesis will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in Dbns, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.

Abstract: Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning by Kevin Patrick Murphy Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science University of California, Berkeley Professor Stuart Russell, Chair Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and bio-sequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linear-Gaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data. In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T ) time instead of O(T ), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T ) space instead of O(T ); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of applying Rao-Blackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.

2,680 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: Good generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which one class of applications is the calculation of Fourier series, applicable to certain problems in which one must multiply an N-vector by an N X N matrix which can be factored into m sparse matrices.

Abstract: An efficient method for the calculation of the interactions of a 2' factorial ex- periment was introduced by Yates and is widely known by his name. The generaliza- tion to 3' was given by Box et al. (1). Good (2) generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which one class of applications is the calculation of Fourier series. In their full generality, Good's methods are applicable to certain problems in which one must multiply an N-vector by an N X N matrix which can be factored into m sparse matrices, where m is proportional to log N. This results inma procedure requiring a number of operations proportional to N log N rather than N2. These methods are applied here to the calculation of complex Fourier series. They are useful in situations where the number of data points is, or can be chosen to be, a highly composite number. The algorithm is here derived and presented in a rather different form. Attention is given to the choice of N. It is also shown how special advantage can be obtained in the use of a binary computer with N = 2' and how the entire calculation can be performed within the array of N data storage locations used for the given Fourier coefficients. Consider the problem of calculating the complex Fourier series N-1 (1) X(j) = EA(k)-Wjk, j = 0 1, * ,N- 1, k=0

10,975 citations

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TL;DR: Turn-taking is used for the ordering of moves in games, for allocating political office, for regulating traffic at intersections, for the servicing of customers at business establishments, and for talking in interviews, meetings, debates, ceremonies, conversations.

Abstract: Publisher Summary Turn taking is used for the ordering of moves in games, for allocating political office, for regulating traffic at intersections, for the servicing of customers at business establishments, and for talking in interviews, meetings, debates, ceremonies, conversations. This chapter discusses the turn-taking system for conversation. On the basis of research using audio recordings of naturally occurring conversations, the chapter highlights the organization of turn taking for conversation and extracts some of the interest that organization has. The turn-taking system for conversation can be described in terms of two components and a set of rules. These two components are turn-constructional component and turn-constructional component. Turn-allocational techniques are distributed into two groups: (1) those in which next turn is allocated by current speaker selecting a next speaker and (2) those in which next turn is allocated by self-selection. The turn-taking rule-set provides for the localization of gap and overlap possibilities at transition-relevance places and their immediate environment, cleansing the rest of a turn's space of systematic bases for their possibility.

10,842 citations

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28 May 1999

TL;DR: This foundational text is the first comprehensive introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP) to appear and provides broad but rigorous coverage of mathematical and linguistic foundations, as well as detailed discussion of statistical methods, allowing students and researchers to construct their own implementations.

Abstract: Statistical approaches to processing natural language text have become dominant in recent years This foundational text is the first comprehensive introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP) to appear The book contains all the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools It provides broad but rigorous coverage of mathematical and linguistic foundations, as well as detailed discussion of statistical methods, allowing students and researchers to construct their own implementations The book covers collocation finding, word sense disambiguation, probabilistic parsing, information retrieval, and other applications

9,004 citations

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01 Jan 1993

TL;DR: This book presents a meta-modelling framework for speech recognition that automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and therefore expensive and expensive process of manually modeling speech.

Abstract: 1. Fundamentals of Speech Recognition. 2. The Speech Signal: Production, Perception, and Acoustic-Phonetic Characterization. 3. Signal Processing and Analysis Methods for Speech Recognition. 4. Pattern Comparison Techniques. 5. Speech Recognition System Design and Implementation Issues. 6. Theory and Implementation of Hidden Markov Models. 7. Speech Recognition Based on Connected Word Models. 8. Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition. 9. Task-Oriented Applications of Automatic Speech Recognition.

8,351 citations

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01 Jan 2007

TL;DR: In this article, the authors reveal how smart design is the new competitive frontier, and why some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them, and how to choose the ones that satisfy customers.

Abstract: Revealing how smart design is the new competitive frontier, this innovative book is a powerful primer on how--and why--some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them.

7,238 citations

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